Topic

# Pore water pressure

About: Pore water pressure is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11455 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 247670 citation(s). The topic is also known as: pwp.

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01 Jan 1976

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed an understanding of the factors determining and controlling the engineering properties of soil, the factors controlling their magnitude, and the influences of environment and time, and developed a two-part book which contains the following chapters: Part 1 - the nature of soils; bonding, crystal structure and surface characteristics; soil mineralogy; soil formation and soil deposits; determination of soil composition; soil water; clay-water-electrolyte system; soil fabric and its measurement; Part 2 - soil behavior; soil composition and engineering properties; effective, intergranular

Abstract: The book is intended to develop an understanding of the factors determining and controlling the engineering properties of soil, the factors controlling their magnitude, and the influences of environment and time. The two-part book contains the following chapters: Part 1 - the nature of soils; bonding, crystal structure and surface characteristics; soil mineralogy; soil formation and soil deposits; determination of soil composition; soil water; clay-water-electrolyte system; soil fabric and its measurement; Part 2 - soil behavior; soil composition and engineering properties; effective, intergranular and total stress; soil structure and its stability; fabric, structure and property relationships, volume change behavior; strength and deformation behavior; and, conduction phenomena. /TRRL/

3,283 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a simple model that satisfies most of these criteria uses depth-averaged equations of motion patterned after those of the Savage-Hutter theory for gravity-driven flow of dry granular masses but generalized to include the effects of viscous pore fluid with varying pressure.

Abstract: Recent advances in theory and experimen- tation motivate a thorough reassessment of the physics of debris flows. Analyses of flows of dry, granular solids and solid-fluid mixtures provide a foundation for a com- prehensive debris flow theory, and experiments provide data that reveal the strengths and limitations of theoret- ical models. Both debris flow materials and dry granular materials can sustain shear stresses while remaining stat- ic; both can deform in a slow, tranquil mode character- ized by enduring, frictional grain contacts; and both can flow in a more rapid, agitated mode characterized by brief, inelastic grain collisions. In debris flows, however, pore fluid that is highly viscous and nearly incompress- ible, composed of water with suspended silt and clay, can strongly mediate intergranular friction and collisions. Grain friction, grain collisions, and viscous fluid flow may transfer significant momentum simultaneously. Both the vibrational kinetic energy of solid grains (mea- sured by a quantity termed the granular temperature) and the pressure of the intervening pore fluid facilitate motion of grains past one another, thereby enhancing debris flow mobility. Granular temperature arises from conversion of flow translational energy to grain vibra- tional energy, a process that depends on shear rates, grain properties, boundary conditions, and the ambient fluid viscosity and pressure. Pore fluid pressures that exceed static equilibrium pressures result from local or global debris contraction. Like larger, natural debris flows, experimental debris flows of ;10 m 3 of poorly sorted, water-saturated sediment invariably move as an unsteady surge or series of surges. Measurements at the base of experimental flows show that coarse-grained surge fronts have little or no pore fluid pressure. In contrast, finer-grained, thoroughly saturated debris be- hind surge fronts is nearly liquefied by high pore pres- sure, which persists owing to the great compressibility and moderate permeability of the debris. Realistic mod- els of debris flows therefore require equations that sim- ulate inertial motion of surges in which high-resistance fronts dominated by solid forces impede the motion of low-resistance tails more strongly influenced by fluid forces. Furthermore, because debris flows characteristi- cally originate as nearly rigid sediment masses, trans- form at least partly to liquefied flows, and then trans- form again to nearly rigid deposits, acceptable models must simulate an evolution of material behavior without invoking preternatural changes in material properties. A simple model that satisfies most of these criteria uses depth-averaged equations of motion patterned after those of the Savage-Hutter theory for gravity-driven flow of dry granular masses but generalized to include the effects of viscous pore fluid with varying pressure. These equations can describe a spectrum of debris flow behav- iors intermediate between those of wet rock avalanches and sediment-laden water floods. With appropriate pore pressure distributions the equations yield numerical so- lutions that successfully predict unsteady, nonuniform motion of experimental debris flows.

2,137 citations

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01 Jan 1981

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present data on soil behaviour, with emphasis on practical and empirical knowledge required by geotechnical engineers for the design and construction of foundations and embankments.

Abstract: This manual presents data on soil behaviour, with emphasis on practical and empirical knowledge, required by geotechnical engineers for the design and construction of foundations and embankments It deals with: index and classification properties of soils; soil classification; clay minerals and soil structure; compaction; water in soils (capillarity, shrinkage, swelling, frost action, permeability, seepage, effective stress); consolidation and consolidation settlements; time rate of consolidation; the Mohr circle, failure theories, and stress paths; shear strength of sands and clays Four appendices deal with the following: application of the "SI" system of units to getechnical engineering; derivation of Laplace's equation; derivation and solution of Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory; pore pressure parameters (TRRL)

1,678 citations

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TL;DR: Byerlee's law, converted to maximum or minimum stress, is a good upper or lower bound to observed in situ stresses to 5 km, for pore pressure hydrostatic or subhydrostatic as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: Laboratory measurements of rock strength provide limiting values of lithospheric stress, provided that one effective principal stress is known. Fracture strengths are too variable to be useful; however, rocks at shallow depth are probably fractured so that frictional strength may apply. A single linear friction law, termed Byerlee's law, holds for all materials except clays, to pressures of more than 1 GPa, to temperatures of 500°C, and over a wide range of strain rates. Byerlee's law, converted to maximum or minimum stress, is a good upper or lower bound to observed in situ stresses to 5 km, for pore pressure hydrostatic or subhydrostatic. Byerlee's law combined with the quartz or olivine flow law provides a maximum stress profile to about 25 or 50 km, respectively. For a temperature gradient of 15°K/km, stress will be close to zero at the surface and at 25 km (quartz) or 50 km (olivine) and reaches a maximum of 600 MPa (quartz) or 1100 MPa (olivine) for hydrostatic pore pressure. Some new permeability studies of crystalline rocks suggest that pore pressure will be low in the absence of a thick argillaceous cover.

1,658 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured the porosity of Westerly granite as a function of effective pressure to 4 kb and found that porosity is correlated with the electrical resistivity of the granite.

Abstract: The permeability of Westerly granite was measured as a function of effective pressure to 4 kb. A transient method was used, in which the decay of a small incremental change of pressure was observed; decay characteristics, when combined with dimensions of the sample and compressibility and viscosity of the fluid (water or argon) yielded permeability, k. k of the granite ranged from 350 nd (nanodarcy = 10−17 cm2) at 100-bar pressure to 4 nd at 4000 bars. Based on linear decay characteristics, Darcy's law apparently held even at this lowest value. Both k and electrical resistivity, ρs, of Westerly granite vary markedly with pressure, and the two are closely related by k = Cρs−1.5±0.1, where C is a constant. With this relationship, an extrapolated value of k at 10-kb pressure would be about 0.5 nd. This value is roughly equivalent to flow rates involved in solute diffusion but is still a great deal more rapid than volume diffusion. Measured permeability and porosity enable hydraulic radius and, hence, the shape of pore spaces in the granite to be estimated. The shapes (flat slits at low pressure, equidimensional pores at high pressure) are consistent with those deduced from elastic characteristics of the rock. From the strong dependence of k on effective pressure, rocks subject to high pore pressure will probably be relatively permeable.

1,305 citations