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Porous silicon

About: Porous silicon is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11690 publications have been published within this topic receiving 210867 citations.


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TL;DR: In this paper, free standing Si quantum wires can be fabricated without the use of epitaxial deposition or lithography using electrochemical and chemical dissolution steps to define networks of isolated wires out of bulk wafers.
Abstract: Indirect evidence is presented that free‐standing Si quantum wires can be fabricated without the use of epitaxial deposition or lithography. The novel approach uses electrochemical and chemical dissolution steps to define networks of isolated wires out of bulk wafers. Mesoporous Si layers of high porosity exhibit visible (red) photoluminescence at room temperature, observable with the naked eye under <1 mW unfocused (<0.1 W cm−2) green or blue laser line excitation. This is attributed to dramatic two‐dimensional quantum size effects which can produce emission far above the band gap of bulk crystalline Si.

7,393 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A large amount of work world wide has been directed towards obtaining an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of porous Si as mentioned in this paper, and the key importance of crystalline Si nanostructures in determining the behaviour of porous si is highlighted.
Abstract: A large amount of work world-wide has been directed towards obtaining an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of porous Si. Much progress has been made following the demonstration in 1990 that highly porous material could emit very efficient visible photoluminescence at room temperature. Since that time, all features of the structural, optical and electronic properties of the material have been subjected to in-depth scrutiny. It is the purpose of the present review to survey the work which has been carried out and to detail the level of understanding which has been attained. The key importance of crystalline Si nanostructures in determining the behaviour of porous Si is highlighted. The fabrication of solid-state electroluminescent devices is a prominent goal of many studies and the impressive progress in this area is described.

2,371 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The photoluminescence (PL) of silicon quantum dots present in porous silicon can be tuned from the near infrared to the ultraviolet when the surface is passivated with Si-H bonds as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Depending on the size, the photoluminescence (PL) of silicon quantum dots present in porous silicon can be tuned from the near infrared to the ultraviolet when the surface is passivated with Si-H bonds. After exposure to oxygen, the PL shifts to the red by as much as 1 eV. This shift and the changes in PL intensity and decay time, show that both quantum confinement and surface passivation determine the electronic states of silicon quantum dots. A theoretical model in which new electronic states appear in the band gap of the smaller quantum dots when a Si-O bond is formed, is in good agreement with experiments. This result clarifies the controversy regarding the PL mechanisms in porous silicon.

1,793 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that a two-dimensional quantum confinement (quantum wire) in the very narrow walls between the pores not only explains the change in band gap energy but also may also explain the dissolution mechanism that leads to porous silicon formation.
Abstract: Porous silicon layers grown on nondegenerated p‐type silicon electrodes in hydrofluoric acid electrolytes are translucent for visible light, which is equivalent to an increased band gap compared to bulk silicon. It will be shown that a two‐dimensional quantum confinement (quantum wire) in the very narrow walls between the pores not only explains the change in band‐gap energy but may also be the key to better understanding the dissolution mechanism that leads to porous silicon formation.

1,705 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Oct 1997-Science
TL;DR: A biosensor has been developed based on induced wavelength shifts in the Fabry-Perot fringes in the visible-light reflection spectrum of appropriately derivatized thin films of porous silicon semiconductors based on Binding of molecules induced changes in the refractive index of the porous silicon.
Abstract: A biosensor has been developed based on induced wavelength shifts in the Fabry-Perot fringes in the visible-light reflection spectrum of appropriately derivatized thin films of porous silicon semiconductors. Binding of molecules induced changes in the refractive index of the porous silicon. The validity and sensitivity of the system are demonstrated for small organic molecules (biotin and digoxigenin), 16-nucleotide DNA oligomers, and proteins (streptavidin and antibodies) at pico- and femtomolar analyte concentrations. The sensor is also highly effective for detecting single and multilayered molecular assemblies.

1,392 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023131
2022316
2021224
2020315
2019356
2018450