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Positronium

About: Positronium is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3895 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 58571 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Ps.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The behavior of the Ps atom in molecular substances, particularly liquids, is investigated. The pickoff rates of o‐Ps in various liquid compounds are found to have a simple empirical relationship to the values of the surface tension of the liquids. The relationship is found to have a theoretical foundation. The Ps atom is highly localized in a cavity created by the balance of various molecular forces inside the liquid. From the above relationship, other simple relationships between the pickoff rates of o‐Ps and the various properties of the medium, e.g., polarizability, cohesive energy density, etc., and the temperature or pressure changes can be derived and explained. The diffusion of o‐Ps is discussed. A similar approach can also be used for molecular solids.

1,608 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A renormalization group strategy for the study of bound states in field theory is developed Our analysis is completely different from conventional analyses, based upon the Bethe-Salpeter equation, and it is far simpler This is illustrated in state-of-the-art calculations for the ground state splittings in muonium and positronium

810 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA) has been developed to analyze the microstructure of polymers. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements give direct information about the dimension and contents of free-volume holes in amorphous materials. The angular correlation measurements of positron annihilation radiation give additional information about the shape of the free-volume holes in oriented polymeric materials. The unique capability of PASCA to probe free-volume properties is from the fact that positronium atom is trapped in the atomic-scale holes which have a size ranging from 1 to 10 A. Theoretical aspects, experimental developments of PASCA, and examples in analyzing the microstructures of epoxy, PEEK, and PMMA polymers are presented.

664 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 1979
Abstract: 1. Introduction to Positron Annihilation.- 1.1 Positron Method.- 1.2 Annihilation of Free Positrons.- 1.3 Experimental Techniques.- 1.3.1 Lifetime Measurements.- 1.3.2 Angular Correlation Measurements.- 1.3.3 Line-Shape Measurements.- 1.3.4 Correlation Between Lifetime and Momentum.- 1.4 Positroniurn Formation and Annihilation.- 1.5 Topics of Positron Studies.- 1.5.1 Metals.- 1.5.2 Metal Defects.- 1.5.3 Ionic Crystals.- 1.5.4 Slow Positrons and Positronium.- 1.5.5 Gases and Low-Temperature Phenomena.- 1.5.6 Molecular Sol ids.- 1.5.7 Positronium Chemistry.- 1.6 Summary.- References.- 2. Electron Momentum Densities in Metals and Alloys.- 2.1 Theory.- 2.1.1 Momentum Density.- 2.1.2 Many-Body Effects.- 2.1.3 Positron Thermalization, Effective Mass and Other Thermal Effects.- a) Thermalization.- b) Effective Mass.- c) Other Thermal Effects.- 2.2 Wave Functions.- 2.2.1 Positron Wave Function.- 2.2.2 Electron Band Structure and Wave Functions.- a) OPW Method.- b) APW Method.- c) KKR and Related Methods.- d) Other Methods.- 2.2.3 Symmetry Properties of Aj(?,k).- a) Radial Behavior.- b) Directional Symmetry.- 2.3 Experimental Techniques.- 2.3.1 2? Angular Correlation Measurements.- 2.3.2 Rotating Specimen Method.- 2.3.3 Doppler Broadening.- 2.3.4 Specimen Preparation.- 2.3.5 Corrections.- a) "Beam Profile" Correction.- b) Diffraction Effect.- c) Angular Resolution and Positron Thermal Motion.- d) Finite Slit Length.- 2.3.6 Analysis.- 2.4 Momentum Density Work in Metals.- 2.4.1 Alkali Metals.- 2.4.2 Other Simple Metals.- 2.4.3 Oriented Graphite, Diamond, Silicon, and Germanium.- 2.4.4 Noble Metals.- 2.4.5 Transition Metals and Rare Earths.- 2.5 Disordered Alloys and Ordered Metallic Compounds.- 2.5.1 Disordered Alloys.- 2.5.2 Metallic Compounds.- 2.6 Conclusion.- References.- 3. Positron Studies of Lattice Defects in Metals.- 3.1 Annihilation Parameters for Defect Studies.- 3.1.1 The Defect Trapping Phenomenon and Its Effect.- 3.1.2 Positron States and Lifetime Spectra.- 3.1.3 Momentum Density Parameters.- 3.2 Monovacancies in Equilibrium.- 3.2.1 The Naive Approach to Temperature Effects.- 3.2.2 Prevacancy Effects.- 3.2.3 Other Complications.- 3.2.4 Vacancy Formation Enthalpy Measurements.- 3.2.5 Characteristic or Threshold Temperatures.- 3.2.6 Pressure Experiments.- 3.3 Nonequilibrium Studies.- 3.3.1 The "Many Defects" Problem.- 3.3.2 Deformation, Quenching, and Irradiation Experiments.- 3.3.3 Annealing Studies.- 3.3.4 Positron Studies of Voids.- 3.4 Defect Studies in Alloys.- 3.4.1 Defect vs Impurity Problems.- 3.4.2 Vacancy Studies.- 3.4.3 Phase Transitions and Boundary Effects.- 3.5 Liquid and Amorphous Metals.- References.- 4. Positrons in Imperfect Solids: Theory.- 4.1 Positron Distribution, Mobility, and Trapping.- 4.1.1 Positron Implantation, Slowing Down, and Thermalization.- 4.1.2 Mobility and Diffusion.- 4.1.3 Positron Distribution in Solids.- 4.1.4 Annihilation Characteristics and Electron-Positron Correlation in Pure Metals.- 4.1.5 Effect of Temperature on Annihilation Characteristics.- 4.1.6 Trapping at Defects.- 4.1.7 Self-trapping.- 4.2 Defects in Metals.- 4.2.1 Electronic Structure of Defects.- 4.2.2 Positron-Defect Interaction.- 4.2.3 Annihilation Characteristics.- 4.2.4 Applications.- a) Vacancies.- b) Dislocations.- c) Impurities and Alloys.- d) Vacancy Clusters.- e) Surfaces.- 4.3 Nonmetals.- 4.4 Conclusions.- References.- 5. Positrons in Ionic Solids..- 5.1 Experimental Methods.- 5.1.1 Standard Experimental Techniques.- 5.1.2 Special Experimental Techniques.- a) Two-Parameter Age-Momentum Measurements.- b) Magnetic Quenching Measurements.- 5.1.3 Experimental Difficulties.- a) Analysis of Multicomponent Lifetime Spectra.- b) Analysis of Multicomponent Momentum Distributions.- c) Source and Surface Contributions to Lifetime Spectra.- d) Radiation Damage Due to the Positron Source.- 5.2 Annihilation Characteristics in Alkali Halides.- 5.2.1 Room Temperature Measurements on Crystals with Low Defect Concentration.- a) Lifetime Spectra.- b) Angular Correlation Curves.- c) Doppler-Broadened Annihilation Line Shape.- d) Three-Quantum Annhi1ation.- 5.2.2 Temperature Effects.- 5.2.3 Annihilation in Crystals with High Defect Concentration.- a) Thermal Defect Generation.- b) Thermal Quenching.- c) Additive Coloration.- d) F ? F-Conversion.- e) Aggregation of F Centers.- f) Doping with Divalent Impurities.- g) Defect Creation by Ionizing Radiation.- h) Plastic Deformation.- i) Mixed Crystals.- 5.2.4 Magnetic Field Effects.- a) Crystals with Low Defect Concentration.- b) Additively Colored Crystals.- c) Doped Crystals.- 5.3 Positron States in Alkali Halides.- 5.3.1 Intrinsic States.- a) Nearly Free Positrons in a Perfect Lattice.- b) Quasi-Positronium in Perfect Crystals.- 5.3.2 Annihilation Centers.- a) CA Center.- b) aA+ Center.- c) CA- and cA-(Ca2+) Centers.- d) aA Center.- e) a2A+ and a3A+ Centers.- 5.3.3 Kinetics of State Formation.- a) Slowing Down.- b) Quasi-Positronium Formation in Perfect Crystals.- c) Formation of A Centers.- 5.4 Annihilation in Other Ionic Compounds.- 5.4.1 Hydrides of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metals.- 5.4.2 Copper, Silver, Gold, Thallium Halides.- 5.4.3 Alkaline-Earth Halides.- 5.4.4 Alkaline-Earth Oxides.- References.- Additional References with Titles.

653 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This review is concerned with the utilization of the positron-electron annihilation phenomenon in studies of the physics of condensed matter. The theory of the annihilation process is outlined, the importance of the two-photon mode of decay is established, and it is described how the observable results depend on the initial positron and electron states of the system. A brief account of the principal experimental techniques is included. Discussion of the complex nature of positron behavior in molecular substances suggests the particular value of investigations directed at the two photon pick-off mode of decay of the orthopositronium atoms that are formed in these materials. The possibility of positronium formation in ionic and metallic materials is also considered. The many important electron aspects of positron annihilation in metals are dealt with. The independent particle approach to the analysis of two photon angular distributions is discussed and illustrated. A survey of electronic structure investigations includes studies of polycrystalline and single crystal specimens. The relevance of angular correlation measurements in investigations of the Fermi surfaces of metals and alloys is discussed. More recently developed applications to the study of defected and disordered systems are dealt with. A preliminary account of the interpretation of multicomponentmore » lifetime spectra in terms of varying numbers of distinguishable positron states provides the basis for a discussion of studies of positron trapping by defects, voids. and surfaces in ionic and metallic solids, liquids and powders. (auth)« less

546 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202143
202057
201961
201869
201779
201684