About: Postreplication repair is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 663 publications have been published within this topic receiving 50880 citations. The topic is also known as: GO:0006301 & postreplication DNA repair.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells: genes and proteins Mismatch repair The SOS response and recombinational repair in prokaryotes Mutagenesis in proKaryote Mutagenisation in eukaryotes Other DNA damage tolerance responses in eUKaryotes.
Abstract: DNA damage Mutations The reversal of base damage Base excision repair Nucleotide excision repair in prokaryotes Nucleotide excision repair in lower eukaryotes Nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells: general considerations and chromatin dynamics Nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells: genes and proteins Mismatch repair The SOS response and recombinational repair in prokaryotes Mutagenesis in prokaryotes Mutagenesis in eukaryotes Other DNA damage tolerance responses in eukaryotes Hereditary diseases with defective responses to DNA damage
TL;DR: The molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints in mammalian cells are analyzed and apoptosis, which eliminates heavily damaged or seriously deregulated cells, is analyzed.
Abstract: DNA damage is a relatively common event in the life of a cell and may lead to mutation, cancer, and cellular or organismic death. Damage to DNA induces several cellular responses that enable the cell either to eliminate or cope with the damage or to activate a programmed cell death process, presumably to eliminate cells with potentially catastrophic mutations. These DNA damage response reactions include: (a) removal of DNA damage and restoration of the continuity of the DNA duplex; (b) activation of a DNA damage checkpoint, which arrests cell cycle progression so as to allow for repair and prevention of the transmission of damaged or incompletely replicated chromosomes; (c) transcriptional response, which causes changes in the transcription profile that may be beneficial to the cell; and (d) apoptosis, which eliminates heavily damaged or seriously deregulated cells. DNA repair mechanisms include direct repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair, and cross-link repair. The DNA damage checkpoints employ damage sensor proteins, such as ATM, ATR, the Rad17-RFC complex, and the 9-1-1 complex, to detect DNA damage and to initiate signal transduction cascades that employ Chk1 and Chk2 Ser/Thr kinases and Cdc25 phosphatases. The signal transducers activate p53 and inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases to inhibit cell cycle progression from G1 to S (the G1/S checkpoint), DNA replication (the intra-S checkpoint), or G2 to mitosis (the G2/M checkpoint). In this review the molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and the DNA damage checkpoints in mammalian cells are analyzed.
TL;DR: This review deals with UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detectingDNA damage and its future perspectives.
Abstract: Increases in ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer have recently fuelled interest in the mechanisms of various effects it might have on organisms. DNA is certainly one of the key targets for UV-induced damage in a variety of organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as cyclobutane–pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6–4 photoproducts (6–4PPs) and their Dewar valence isomers. However, cells have developed a number of repair or tolerance mechanisms to counteract the DNA damage caused by UV or any other stressors. Photoreactivation with the help of the enzyme photolyase is one of the most important and frequently occurring repair mechanisms in a variety of organisms. Excision repair, which can be distinguished into base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER), also plays an important role in DNA repair in several organisms with the help of a number of glycosylases and polymerases, respectively. In addition, mechanisms such as mutagenic repair or dimer bypass, recombinational repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and certain alternative repair pathways are also operative in various organisms. This review deals with UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and its future perspectives.
TL;DR: This study shows that PARP inhibitors trap the PARP1 and PARP2 enzymes at damaged DNA, providing a new mechanistic foundation for the rational application ofPARP inhibitors in cancer therapy.
Abstract: Small-molecule inhibitors of PARP are thought to mediate their antitumor effects as catalytic inhibitors that block repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). However, the mechanism of action of PARP inhibitors with regard to their effects in cancer cells is not fully understood. In this study, we show that PARP inhibitors trap the PARP1 and PARP2 enzymes at damaged DNA. Trapped PARP-DNA complexes were more cytotoxic than unrepaired SSBs caused by PARP inactivation, arguing that PARP inhibitors act in part as poisons that trap PARP enzyme on DNA. Moreover, the potency in trapping PARP differed markedly among inhibitors with niraparib (MK-4827) > olaparib (AZD-2281) >> veliparib (ABT-888), a pattern not correlated with the catalytic inhibitory properties for each drug. We also analyzed repair pathways for PARP-DNA complexes using 30 genetically altered avian DT40 cell lines with preestablished deletions in specific DNA repair genes. This analysis revealed that, in addition to homologous recombination, postreplication repair, the Fanconi anemia pathway, polymerase β, and FEN1 are critical for repairing trapped PARP-DNA complexes. In summary, our study provides a new mechanistic foundation for the rational application of PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy.
TL;DR: A caretaker role for BRCA1 is demonstrated in preserving genomic integrity by promoting homologous recombination and limiting mutagenic nonhomologous repair processes.
Abstract: Germline mutations in BRCA1 confer a high risk of breast and ovarian tumors. The role of BRCA1 in tumor suppression is not yet understood, but both transcription and repair functions have been ascribed. Evidence that BRCA1 is involved in DNA repair stems from its association with RAD51, a homolog of the yeast protein involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. We report here that Brca1-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells have impaired repair of chromosomal DSBs by homologous recombination. The relative frequencies of homologous and nonhomologous DNA integration and DSB repair were also altered. The results demonstrate a caretaker role for BRCA1 in preserving genomic integrity by promoting homologous recombination and limiting mutagenic nonhomologous repair processes.
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