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# Power dividers and directional couplers

About: Power dividers and directional couplers is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16955 publications have been published within this topic receiving 188760 citations.

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TL;DR: The underlying self-imaging principle in multimode waveguides is described using a guided mode propagation analysis and it is shown that multimode interference couplers offer superior performance, excellent tolerance to polarization and wavelength variations, and relaxed fabrication requirements when compared to alternatives such as directional coupling.

Abstract: This paper presents an overview of integrated optics routing and coupling devices based on multimode interference. The underlying self-imaging principle in multimode waveguides is described using a guided mode propagation analysis. Special issues concerning the design and operation of multimode interference devices are discussed, followed by a survey of reported applications. It is shown that multimode interference couplers offer superior performance, excellent tolerance to polarization and wavelength variations, and relaxed fabrication requirements when compared to alternatives such as directional couplers, adiabatic X- or Y-junctions, and diffractive star couplers. >

2,358 citations

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01 Jan 1974

TL;DR: The asymmetric slab waveguide weakly guiding optical fibers coupled mode theory applications of the coupled power theory theory of the directional coupler grating-assisted direction couplers approximate and numerical methods nonlinear effects as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: The asymmetric slab waveguide weakly guiding optical fibers coupled mode theory applications of the coupled mode theory coupled power theory theory of the directional coupler grating-assisted direction couplers approximate and numerical methods nonlinear effects.

2,270 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the transmission properties of a guide consisting of a dielectric rod with rectangular cross section, surrounded by several dielectrics of smaller refractive indices.

Abstract: We study the transmission properties of a guide consisting of a dielectric rod with rectangular cross section, surrounded by several dielectrics of smaller refractive indices. This guide is suitable for integrated optical circuitry because of its size, single-mode operation, mechanical stability, simplicity, and precise construction. After making some simplifying assumptions, we solve Maxwell's equations in closed form and find, that, because of total internal reflection, the guide supports two types of hybrid modes which are essentially of the TEM kind polarized at right angles. Their attenuations are comparable to that of a plane wave traveling in the material of which the rod is made. If the refractive indexes are chosen properly, the guide can support only the fundamental modes of each family with any aspect ratio of the guide cross section. By adding thin lossy layers, the guide presents higher loss to one of those modes. As an alternative, the guide can be made to support only one of the modes if part of the surrounding dielectrics is made a low impedance medium. Finally, we determine the coupling between parallel guiding rods of slightly different sizes and dielectrics; at wavelengths around one micron, 3-dB directional couplers, a few hundred microns long, can be achieved with separations of the guides about the same as their widths (a few microns).

1,576 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a circularly symmetric power divider is described which splits a signal into n equiphase equiamplitude parts where n can be odd or even.

Abstract: A circularly symmetric power divider is described which splits a signal into n equiphase equiamplitude parts where n can be odd or even. The power divider provides isolation between output terminals and approximately matched terminal impedances over about a 20 per cent band. A theory of operation is given which yields the necessary design parameters, and an experimental model is described which has a minimum isolation of -27 db between output terminals, an output VSWR of 1.6, and an input VSWR of 1.2.

1,326 citations

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01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the characteristics of conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides, as well as their transitions in directional couplers, hybrid, and magic-Ts.

Abstract: Preface Introduction Conventional Coplanar Waveguide Conductor-Backed Coplanar Waveguide Coplanar Waveguide with Finite-Width Ground Planes Coplanar Waveguide Suspended Inside A Conducting Enclosure Coplanar Striplines Microshield Lines and Coupled Coplanar Waveguide Attenuation Characteristics of Conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities and Circuit Elements Coplanar Waveguide Transitions Directional Couplers, Hybrids, and Magic-Ts Coplanar Waveguide Applications References Index

1,162 citations