About: Precipitation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 32861 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 990496 citation(s). The topic is also known as: rain & rainfall.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Nov 2006-Journal of Climate
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined some aspects of the hydrological cycle that are robust across the models, including the decrease in convective mass fluxes, the increase in horizontal moisture transport, the associated enhancement of the pattern of evaporation minus precipitation and its temporal variance, and decrease in the horizontal sensible heat transport in the extratropics.
Abstract: Using the climate change experiments generated for the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this study examines some aspects of the changes in the hydrological cycle that are robust across the models. These responses include the decrease in convective mass fluxes, the increase in horizontal moisture transport, the associated enhancement of the pattern of evaporation minus precipitation and its temporal variance, and the decrease in the horizontal sensible heat transport in the extratropics. A surprising finding is that a robust decrease in extratropical sensible heat transport is found only in the equilibrium climate response, as estimated in slab ocean responses to the doubling of CO2, and not in transient climate change scenarios. All of these robust responses are consequences of the increase in lower-tropospheric water vapor.
01 Aug 1987-Monthly Weather Review
TL;DR: In this article, the amplitude and phase of the Arm harmonic fitted to the 24-month composite values are plotted in the form of a vector for each station, which reveals both the regions of spatially coherent ENSO-related precipitation and the phase of this signal in relation to the evolution of the composite episode.
Abstract: We investigate the “typical” global and large-scale regional precipitation patterns that are associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Monthly precipitation time series from over 1700 stations are analyzed using an empirical method designed to identify regions of the globe that have precipitation variations associated with ENSO. Monthly mean ranked precipitation composites are computed over idealized 2-year ENSO episodes for all stations that include data for at least five ENSOs. The amplitude and phase of the Arm harmonic fitted to the 24-month composite values are plotted in the form of a vector for each station. When plotted on a global map, these vectors reveal both the regions of spatially coherent ENSO-related precipitation and the phase of this signal in relation to the evolution of the composite episode. Time cries of precipitation for the coherent regions identified in the harmonic vector map are examined to determine the magnitudes of the ENSO-related precipitation and th...
TL;DR: In a warmer world, less winter precipitation falls as snow and the melting of winter snow occurs earlier in spring, which leads to a shift in peak river runoff to winter and early spring, away from summer and autumn when demand is highest.
Abstract: All currently available climate models predict a near-surface warming trend under the influence of rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to the direct effects on climate--for example, on the frequency of heatwaves--this increase in surface temperatures has important consequences for the hydrological cycle, particularly in regions where water supply is currently dominated by melting snow or ice. In a warmer world, less winter precipitation falls as snow and the melting of winter snow occurs earlier in spring. Even without any changes in precipitation intensity, both of these effects lead to a shift in peak river runoff to winter and early spring, away from summer and autumn when demand is highest. Where storage capacities are not sufficient, much of the winter runoff will immediately be lost to the oceans. With more than one-sixth of the Earth's population relying on glaciers and seasonal snow packs for their water supply, the consequences of these hydrological changes for future water availability--predicted with high confidence and already diagnosed in some regions--are likely to be severe.
Monash University, Clayton campus1, Met Office2, Bureau of Meteorology3, Meteorological Service of Canada4, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration5, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute6, University of East Anglia7, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology8, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research9, University of Reading10, University of the West Indies11, University of Oxford12, China Meteorological Administration13, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales14, National Autonomous University of Mexico15
TL;DR: A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed as discussed by the authors, and the results showed widespread significant changes in temperature extremes associated with warming.
Abstract: A suite of climate change indices derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, with a primary focus on extreme events, were computed and analyzed. By setting an exact formula for each index and using specially designed software, analyses done in different countries have been combined seamlessly. This has enabled the presentation of the most up-to-date and comprehensive global picture of trends in extreme temperature and precipitation indices using results from a number of workshops held in data-sparse regions and high-quality station data supplied by numerous scientists world wide. Seasonal and annual indices for the period 1951-2003 were gridded. Trends in the gridded fields were computed and tested for statistical significance. Results showed widespread significant changes in temperature extremes associated with warming, especially for those indices derived from daily minimum temperature. Over 70% of the global land area sampled showed a significant decrease in the annual occurrence of cold nights and a significant increase in the annual occurrence of warm nights. Some regions experienced a more than doubling of these indices. This implies a positive shift in the distribution of daily minimum temperature throughout the globe. Daily maximum temperature indices showed similar changes but with smaller magnitudes. Precipitation changes showed a widespread and significant increase, but the changes are much less spatially coherent compared with temperature change. Probability distributions of indices derived from approximately 200 temperature and 600 precipitation stations, with near-complete data for 1901-2003 and covering a very large region of the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes (and parts of Australia for precipitation) were analyzed for the periods 1901-1950, 1951-1978 and 1979-2003. Results indicate a significant warming throughout the 20th century. Differences in temperature indices distributions are particularly pronounced between the most recent two periods and for those indices related to minimum temperature. An analysis of those indices for which seasonal time series are available shows that these changes occur for all seasons although they are generally least pronounced for September to November. Precipitation indices show a tendency toward wetter conditions throughout the 20th century.
TL;DR: Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere that enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation, which can lead to a weaker hydrological cycle, which connects directly to availability and quality of fresh water, a major environmental issue of the 21st century.
Abstract: Human activities are releasing tiny particles (aerosols) into the atmosphere. These human-made aerosols enhance scattering and absorption of solar radiation. They also produce brighter clouds that are less efficient at releasing precipitation. These in turn lead to large reductions in the amount of solar irradiance reaching Earth's surface, a corresponding increase in solar heating of the atmosphere, changes in the atmospheric temperature structure, suppression of rainfall, and less efficient removal of pollutants. These aerosol effects can lead to a weaker hydrological cycle, which connects directly to availability and quality of fresh water, a major environmental issue of the 21st century.
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