Topic

# Premixed flame

About: Premixed flame is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9890 publications have been published within this topic receiving 255931 citations.

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29 Dec 1998

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the physical chemistry of combustion in fire and discuss the physical properties of fire and its application in a wide range of applications in fire science and combustion.

Abstract: Machine generated contents note: About the AuthorPreface to the Second EditionPreface to the Third EditionList of Symbols and Abbreviations1 Fire science and combustion 1.1 Fuels and the Combustion Process 1.2 The Physical Chemistry of Combustion in Fires Problems2 Heat transfer 2.1 Summary of the heat transfer equations 2.2 Conduction 2.3 Convection 2.4 Radiation Problems3 Limits of flammability and premixed flames 3.1 Limits of flammability 3.2 The structure of a premixed flame 3.3 Heat losses from premixed flames 3.4 Measurement of burning velocities 3.5 Variation of burning velocity with experimental parameters 3.6 The effect of turbulence Problems4 Diffusion flames and fire plumes 4.1 Laminar jet flames 4.2 Turbulent jet flames 4.3 Flames from natural fires 4.4 Some practical applications Problems5 Steady burning of liquids and solids 5.1 Burning of liquids 5.2 Burning of solids Problems6 Ignition: The initiation of flaming combustion 6.1 Ignition of^

1,984 citations

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01 Jan 1988TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the inner structure of the flamelets is one-dimensional and time dependent, and a new coordinate transformation using the mixture fraction Z as independent variable leads to a universal description.

Abstract: The laminar flamelet concept covers a regime in turbulent combustion where chemistry (as compared to transport processes) is fast such that it occurs in asymptotically thin layers—called flamelets—embedded within the turbulent flow field. This situation occurs in most practical combustion systems including reciprocating engines and gas turbine combustors. The inner structure of the flamelets is one-dimensional and time dependent. This is shown by an asymptotic expansion for the Damkohler number of the rate determining reaction which is assumed to be large. Other non-dimensional chemical parameters such as the nondimensional activation energy or Zeldovich number may also be large and may be related to the Damkohler number by a distinguished asymptoiic limit. Examples of the flamelet structure are presented using onestep model kinetics or a reduced four-step quasi-global mechanism for methane flames. For non-premixed combustion a formal coordinate transformation using the mixture fraction Z as independent variable leads to a universal description. The instantaneous scalar dissipation rate χ of the conserved scalar Z is identified to represent the diffusion time scale that is compared with the chemical time scale in the definition of the Damkohler number. Flame stretch increases the scalar dissipation rate in a turbulent flow field. If it exceeds a critical value χ q the diffusion flamelet will extinguish. Considering the probability density distribution of χ , it is shown how local extinction reduces the number of burnable flamelets and thereby the mean reaction rate. Furthermore, local extinction events may interrupt the connection to burnable flamelets which are not yet reached by an ignition source and will therefore not be ignited. This phenomenon, described by percolation theory, is used to derive criteria for the stability of lifted flames. It is shown how values of ∋ q obtained from laminar experiments scale with turbulent residence times to describe lift-off of turbulent jet diffusion flames. For non-premixed combustion it is concluded that the outer mixing field—by imposing the scalar dissipation rate—dominates the flamelet behaviour because the flamelet is attached to the surface of stoichiometric mixture. The flamelet response may be two-fold: burning or non-burning quasi-stationary states. This is the reason why classical turbulence models readily can be used in the flamelet regime of non-premixed combustion. The extent to which burnable yet non-burning flamelets and unsteady transition events contribute to the overall statistics in turbulent non-premixed flames needs still to be explored further. For premixed combustion the interaction between flamelets and the outer flow is much stronger because the flame front can propagate normal to itself. The chemical time scale and the thermal diffusivity determine the flame thickness and the flame velocity. The flamelet concept is valid if the flame thickness is smaller than the smallest length scale in the turbulent flow, the Kolmogorov scale. Also, if the turbulence intensity v′ is larger than the laminar flame velocity, there is a local interaction between the flame front and the turbulent flow which corrugates the front. A new length scale L G =v F 3 /∈ , the Gibson scale, is introduced which describes the smaller size of the burnt gas pockets of the front. Here v F is the laminar flame velocity and ∈ the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy in the oncoming flow. Eddies smaller than L G cannot corrugate the flame front due to their smaller circumferential velocity while larger eddies up to the macro length scale will only convect the front within the flow field. Flame stretch effects are the most efficient at the smallest scale L G . If stretch combined with differential diffusion of temperature and the deficient reactant, represented by a Lewis number different from unity, is imposed on the flamelet, its inner structure will respond leading to a change in flame velocity and in some cases to extinction. Transient effects of this response are much more important than for diffusion flamelets. A new mechanism of premixed flamelet extinction, based on the diffusion of radicals out of the reaction zone, is described by Rogg. Recent progress in the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation and the pdf-transport equation approach by Pope are presented. Finally, different approaches to predict the turbulent flame velocity including an argument based on the fractal dimension of the flame front are discussed.

1,268 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an updated detailed chemical kinetic model for soot formation is presented, which combines recent developments in gas phase reactions, aromatic chemistry, soot particle coagulation, and particle aggregation, and develops a new submodel for surface growth.

1,083 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the advances made over the past two decades in this area is provided in this article, where various swirl injector configurations and related flow characteristics, including vortex breakdown, precessing vortex core, large-scale coherent structures, and liquid fuel atomization and spray formation are discussed.

1,048 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensively tested H2/O2 chemical kinetic mechanism based on the work of Mueller et al. 1 and recently published kinetic and thermodynamic information is presented in this paper, which is validated against a wide range of experimental conditions, including those found in shock tubes, flow reactors, and laminar premixed flame.

Abstract: A comprehensively tested H2/O2 chemical kinetic mechanism based on the work of Mueller et al. 1 and recently published kinetic and thermodynamic information is presented. The revised mechanism is validated against a wide range of experimental conditions, including those found in shock tubes, flow reactors, and laminar premixed flame. Excellent agreement of the model predictions with the experimental observations demonstrates that the mechanism is comprehensive and has good predictive capabilities for different experimental systems, including new results published subsequent to the work of Mueller et al. 1, particularly high-pressure laminar flame speed and shock tube ignition results. The reaction H + OH + M is found to be primarily significant only to laminar flame speed propagation predictions at high pressure. All experimental hydrogen flame speed observations can be adequately fit using any of the several transport coefficient estimates presently available in the literature for the hydrogen/oxygen system simply by adjusting the rate parameters for this reaction within their present uncertainties. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 36: 566–575, 2004

988 citations