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Pressure gradient

About: Pressure gradient is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11275 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 221535 citation(s). The topic is also known as: gradient of pressure.

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Abstract: A comprehensive and critical review of closure approximations for two-equation turbulence models has been made. Particular attention has focused on the scale-determining equation in an attempt to find the optimum choice of dependent variable and closure approximations. Using a combination of singular perturbation methods and numerical computations, this paper demonstrates that: 1) conventional A:-e and A>w formulations generally are inaccurate for boundary layers in adverse pressure gradient; 2) using "wall functions'' tends to mask the shortcomings of such models; and 3) a more suitable choice of dependent variables exists that is much more accurate for adverse pressure gradient. Based on the analysis, a two-equation turbulence model is postulated that is shown to be quite accurate for attached boundary layers in adverse pressure gradient, compressible boundary layers, and free shear flows. With no viscous damping of the model's closure coefficients and without the aid of wall functions, the model equations can be integrated through the viscous sublayer. Surface boundary conditions are presented that permit accurate predictions for flow over rough surfaces and for flows with surface mass addition.

2,541 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The experiments of McDonald and his co-workers have shown that in the larger arteries of the rabbit and the dog there is a reversal of the flow, and the simple mathematical treatment has strong similarities with the theory of the distribution of alternating current in a conductor of finite size.
Abstract: The experiments of McDonald and his co-workers (McDonald, 1952, 1955; Helps & McDonald, 1953) have shown that in the larger arteries of the rabbit and the dog there is a reversal of the flow. Measurements of the pressure gradient (Helps & McDonald, 1953) showed a phase-lag between pressure gradient and flow somewhat analogous with the phase-lag between voltage and current in a conductor carrying alternating current, and the simple mathematical treatment given below has strong similarities with the theory of the distribution of alternating current in a conductor of finite size.

1,542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A method for generating three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulent inflow data for simulations of complex spatially developing boundary layers is described. The approach is to extract instantaneous planes of velocity data from an auxiliary simulation of a zero pressure gradient boundary layer. The auxiliary simulation is also spatially developing, but generates its own inflow conditions through a sequence of operations where the velocity field at a downstream station is rescaled and re-introduced at the inlet. This procedure is essentially a variant of the Spalart method, optimized so that an existing inflow?outflow code can be converted to an inflow-generation device through the addition of one simple subroutine. The proposed method is shown to produce a realistic turbulent boundary layer which yields statistics that are in good agreement with both experimental data and results from direct simulations. The method is used to provide inflow conditions for a large eddy simulation (LES) of a spatially evolving boundary layer spanning a momentum thickness Reynolds number interval of 1530?2150. The results from the LES calculation are compared with those from other simulations that make use of more approximate inflow conditions. When compared with the approximate inflow generation techniques, the proposed method is shown to be highly accurate, with little or no adjustment of the solution near the inlet boundary. In contrast, the other methods surveyed produce a transient near the inlet that persists several boundary layer thicknesses downstream. Lack of a transient when using the proposed method is significant since the adverse effects of inflow errors are typically minimized through a costly upstream elongation of the mesh. Extension of the method for non-zero pressure gradients is also discussed.

1,341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Steady state model of solar wind flow in equatorial plane solved for radial and azimuthal motions, taking into account pressure gradient, magnetic field and gravitational effects

1,190 citations

01 Jan 1955
Abstract: The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.

1,110 citations

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