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Primary education

About: Primary education is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 61083 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 876956 citation(s). The topic is also known as: elementary education & primary and lower secondary education.

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Abstract: Preparing the books to read every day is enjoyable for many people. However, there are still many people who also don't like reading. This is a problem. But, when you can support others to start reading, it will be better. One of the books that can be recommended for new readers is experience and education. This book is not kind of difficult book to read. It can be read and understand by the new readers.

4,978 citations

01 Jan 1993
Abstract: Foreword. Acknowledgments. Introduction. Part I: What We Know About Bullying: Stories from the Press. What is Meant by Bullying? Some Information About the Recent Studies. One Student out of Seven. Bully/Victim Problems in Different Grades. Have Bully/Victim Problems Increased. Bullying Among Boys and Girls. How Much Do the Teachers Do? How Much Do the Parents Know. Bullying at School and on the Way to and from School. Comparison between Norway and Sweden. Is Bullying Primarily a Big-City Problem? The Size of the School and the Class. Supervision During Recess and Lunch Time. On Analysis at Different Levels. Stability of Bully/Victim Problems over Time. Is Bullying a Consequence of Competition at School? What Role do External Deviations Play? What Characterizes the Typical Victims? What Characterizes the Typical Bullies? Physical Weakness and Strength. A Concrete Picture. What Kind of Rearing Conditions Create Aggressive Children? Group Mechanisms. Other Factors. A Wider Perspective on Bully/Victim Problems. A Question of Fundamental Democratic Rights. Portrait Sketches of Henry and Roger, a Victim and a Bully. Guide for the Identification of Possible Victims and Bullies: Being a Victim - Possible Signs. Being a Bully - Possible Signs. Part II: What We Can Do About Bullying: Overview of Intervention Program. Goals. Awareness and Involvement. Measures at the School Level: A School Conference Day. Supervision and Outdoor Environment. Contact Telephone. A General PTA Meeting. Teacher Groups for the Development of the Social Milieu of the School. Study Groups in Parent-Teacher Associations (Parent Circles). Measures at the Class Level: Class Rules about Bullying. Praise. Sanctions. Class Meetings. Cooperative Learning. Common Positive Activities. Class PTA Meetings. Measures at the Individual Level: Serious Talks with the Bully. Talks with the Victim. Talks with the Parents. What Can the Parents of the Bully Do? What Can the Parents of the Victim Do? Use of Imagination. Discussion Groups for Parents of Bullied or Bullying Students. Change of Class or School. Part III: Effects of The Intervention Program: Main Findings. Brief Comments. Basic Principles. Additional Characteristics. Part IV: Additional Practical Advice and a Core Program: Support form the Principal and Formation of a Coordinating Group. Awareness and Involvement. Adequate Supervision During Recess and Lunch Time. Class Rules and Class Meetings. Talks with Involved Students and Their Parents. Overview of Core Program. Final Words. References. Index.

3,476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
George Psacharopoulos1
Abstract: The author updates compilations of rate of return estimates to investment in education published since 1985 - and discusses methodological issues surrounding those estimates. Some key patterns: among the three main levels of education, primary education continues to exhibit the highest social profitability in all world regions - private returns are considerably higher than social returns because of the public subsidization of education; the degree of public subsidy increases with the level of education, which is regressive; social and private returns at all levels generally decline by the level of a country's per capita income; overall, the returns to female education are higher than those to male education, but at individual levels of education the pattern is more mixed; the returns to the academic secondary school track are higher than the vocational track - since unit cost of vocational education is much higher; and the returns for those who work in the private (competitive) sector of the economy are higher than in the public (noncompetitive) sector. And the returns in the self-employment (unregulated) sector of the economy are higher than in the dependent employment sector. Controversies in the literature are discussed in the light of the new evidence. The undisputable and universal positive correlation between education and earnings can be interpreted in many ways. The causation issue on whether education really affects earnings can be answered only with experimental data generated by randomly exposing different people to various amounts of education. Given the fact that moral and pragmatic considerations prevent the generation of such pure data, researchers have to make do with indirect inferences or natural experiments. Some have been attempted. The author looks at the research on overeducation or surplus schooling. The conclusions reinforce earlier patterns. They confirm that primary education continues to be the number one investment priority in developing countries. They also show that educating females is marginally more profitable than educating males, that the academic secondary school curriculum is a better investment than the technical/vocational tract, and that the returns to education obey the same rules as investment in conventional capital - that is, they decline as investment is expanded.

3,076 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: On the basis of a new model of motivation, we examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher (n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3-5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student-teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted. What are the factors that motivate children to learn? Educators and parents value motivation in school for its own sake as well as for its long-term contribution to children's learning and self-esteem. Highly motivated children are easy to identify: They are enthusiastic, interested, involved, and curious; they try hard and persist; and they actively cope with challenges and setbacks. These are the children who should stay in school longer, learn more, feel better about themselves, and continue their education after high school. Recent research has borne this out (Ames & Ames, 1984, 1985; Pintrich, 1991; Stipek, 1988). Although motivated students are easy to recognize, they are difficult to find. Research shows that across the preschool to high school years, children's intrinsic motivation decreases and they feel increasingly alienated from learning (Harter, 1981). Why is it so difficult to optimize student motivation? Decades of psychological and educational research

2,729 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: (1995). But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory Into Practice: Vol. 34, Culturally Relevant Teaching, pp. 159-165.

2,398 citations

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