About: Primate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1250 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 67388 citation(s). The topic is also known as: the primate order & primates.
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21 Sep 1998
TL;DR: This new edition brings this coverage up to date with the latest fossil finds and most current research, and retains its grounding in the extant primate groups as the best way to understand the fossil trail and the evolution of these modern forms.
Abstract: Tables & Illustrations. Preface. Adaptation, Evolution, and Systematics. The Primate Body. Primate Lives. Prosimians. New World Anthropoids. Old World Monkeys. Apes and Humans. Primate Communities. Primate Adaptations. The Fossil Record. Primate Origins. Fossil Prosimians. Early Anthropoids. Fossil Platyrrhines. Fossil Apes. Fossil Old World Monkeys. Hominids, the Bipedal Primates. Patterns in Primate Evolution. Index.
TL;DR: The results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience.
Abstract: Although granule cells continue to be added to the dentate gyrus of adult rats and tree shrews, this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in the dentate gyrus of adult primates. To determine whether neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, adult marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr or 3 weeks later. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into proliferating cells during S phase. A substantial number of cells in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys incorporated BrdU and ≈80% of these cells had morphological characteristics of granule neurons and expressed a neuronal marker by the 3-week time point. Previous studies suggest that the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus can be inhibited by stress in rats and tree shrews. To test whether an aversive experience has a similar effect on cell proliferation in the primate brain, adult marmoset monkeys were exposed to a resident-intruder model of stress. After 1 hr in this condition, the intruder monkeys were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr later. The number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the intruder monkeys was compared with that of unstressed control monkeys. We found that a single exposure to this stressful experience resulted in a significant reduction in the number of these proliferating cells. Our results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience.
01 Aug 1994-Journal of Neurophysiology
TL;DR: periodic oscillatory neuronal activity at low frequency, highly correlated with tremor, was detected in a large number of cells in STN and GPi after MPTP treatment and the autocorrelograms of spike trains of these neurons confirm that the periodic oscillatory activity was very stable.
Abstract: 1. The neuronal mechanisms underlying the major motor signs of Parkinson's disease were studied in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian monkeys. Three African green monkeys were systemically treated w...
01 Jan 1993-The Journal of Neuroscience
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that attended natural stimulation can modify the tonotopic organization of Al in the adult primate, and that this alteration is correlated with changes in perceptual acuity.
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that the tonotopic organization of primary auditory cortex is altered subsequent to restricted cochlear lesions (Robertson and Irvine, 1989) and that the topographic reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex is correlated with changes in the perceptual acuity of the animal (Recanzone et al., 1992a-d). Here we report an increase in the cortical area of representation of a restricted frequency range in primary auditory cortex of adult owl monkeys that is correlated with the animal's performance at a frequency discrimination task. Monkeys trained for several weeks to discriminate small differences in the frequency of sequentially presented tonal stimuli revealed a progressive improvement in performance with training. At the end of the training period, the tonotopic organization of Al was defined by recording multiple-unit responses at 70-258 cortical locations. These responses were compared to those derived from three normal monkeys and from two monkeys that received the same auditory stimuli but that were engaged in a tactile discrimination task. The cortical representation, the sharpness of tuning, and the latency of the response were greater for the behaviorally relevant frequencies of trained monkeys when compared to the same frequencies of control monkeys. The cortical area of representation was the only studied parameter that was correlated with behavioral performance. These results demonstrate that attended natural stimulation can modify the tonotopic organization of Al in the adult primate, and that this alteration is correlated with changes in perceptual acuity.
Richard A. Gibbs1, Jeffrey Rogers2, Michael G. Katze3, Roger E. Bumgarner3 +174 more•Institutions (28)
TL;DR: The genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female is determined and compared with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families.
Abstract: The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.
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