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# Prime-factor FFT algorithm

About: Prime-factor FFT algorithm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2346 publications have been published within this topic receiving 65147 citations. The topic is also known as: Prime Factor Algorithm.

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TL;DR: Good generalized these methods and gave elegant algorithms for which one class of applications is the calculation of Fourier series, applicable to certain problems in which one must multiply an N-vector by an N X N matrix which can be factored into m sparse matrices.

Abstract: An efficient method for the calculation of the interactions of a 2' factorial ex- periment was introduced by Yates and is widely known by his name. The generaliza- tion to 3' was given by Box et al. (1). Good (2) generalized these methods and gave elegant algorithms for which one class of applications is the calculation of Fourier series. In their full generality, Good's methods are applicable to certain problems in which one must multiply an N-vector by an N X N matrix which can be factored into m sparse matrices, where m is proportional to log N. This results inma procedure requiring a number of operations proportional to N log N rather than N2. These methods are applied here to the calculation of complex Fourier series. They are useful in situations where the number of data points is, or can be chosen to be, a highly composite number. The algorithm is here derived and presented in a rather different form. Attention is given to the choice of N. It is also shown how special advantage can be obtained in the use of a binary computer with N = 2' and how the entire calculation can be performed within the array of N data storage locations used for the given Fourier coefficients. Consider the problem of calculating the complex Fourier series N-1 (1) X(j) = EA(k)-Wjk, j = 0 1, * ,N- 1, k=0

11,795 citations

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TL;DR: A generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph, that computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function.

Abstract: Algorithms that must deal with complicated global functions of many variables often exploit the manner in which the given functions factor as a product of "local" functions, each of which depends on a subset of the variables. Such a factorization can be visualized with a bipartite graph that we call a factor graph, In this tutorial paper, we present a generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph. Following a single, simple computational rule, the sum-product algorithm computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sum-product algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's (1988) belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms.

6,637 citations

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TL;DR: An alternating minimization algorithm for recovering images from blurry and noisy observations with total variation (TV) regularization from a new half-quadratic model applicable to not only the anisotropic but also the isotropic forms of TV discretizations is proposed.

Abstract: We propose, analyze, and test an alternating minimization algorithm for recovering images from blurry and noisy observations with total variation (TV) regularization. This algorithm arises from a new half-quadratic model applicable to not only the anisotropic but also the isotropic forms of TV discretizations. The per-iteration computational complexity of the algorithm is three fast Fourier transforms. We establish strong convergence properties for the algorithm including finite convergence for some variables and relatively fast exponential (or $q$-linear in optimization terminology) convergence for the others. Furthermore, we propose a continuation scheme to accelerate the practical convergence of the algorithm. Extensive numerical results show that our algorithm performs favorably in comparison to several state-of-the-art algorithms. In particular, it runs orders of magnitude faster than the lagged diffusivity algorithm for TV-based deblurring. Some extensions of our algorithm are also discussed.

1,883 citations

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TL;DR: A Fast Discrete Cosine Transform algorithm has been developed which provides a factor of six improvement in computational complexity when compared to conventional DiscreteCosine Transform algorithms using the Fast Fourier Transform.

Abstract: A Fast Discrete Cosine Transform algorithm has been developed which provides a factor of six improvement in computational complexity when compared to conventional Discrete Cosine Transform algorithms using the Fast Fourier Transform. The algorithm is derived in the form of matrices and illustrated by a signal-flow graph, which may be readily translated to hardware or software implementations.

1,301 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for computing the transform of a band-limited function, which is a simple iteration involving only the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and it is shown that the effect of noise and the error due to aliasing can be controlled by early termination of the iteration.

Abstract: If only a segment of a function f (t) is given, then its Fourier spectrum F(\omega) is estimated either as the transform of the product of f(t) with a time-limited window w(t) , or by certain techniques based on various a priori assumptions. In the following, a new algorithm is proposed for computing the transform of a band-limited function. The algorithm is a simple iteration involving only the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effect of noise and the error due to aliasing are determined and it is shown that they can be controlled by early termination of the iteration. The proposed method can also be used to extrapolate bandlimited functions.

1,034 citations