scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Topic

Prism

About: Prism is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 24576 publications have been published within this topic receiving 193112 citations. The topic is also known as: optical prism.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new method of exciting nonradiative surface plasma waves (SPW) on smooth surfaces, causing also a new phenomena in total reflexion, is described.
Abstract: A new method of exciting nonradiative surface plasma waves (SPW) on smooth surfaces, causing also a new phenomena in total reflexion, is described. Since the phase velocity of the SPW at a metal-vacuum surface is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum, these waves cannot be excited by light striking the surface, provided that this is perfectly smooth. However, if a prism is brought near to the metal vacuum-interface, the SPW can be excited optically by the evanescent wave present in total reflection. The excitation is seen as a strong decrease in reflection for the transverse magnetic light and for a special angle of incidence. The method allows of an accurate evaluation of the dispersion of these waves. The experimental results on a silver-vacuum surface are compared with the theory of metal optics and are found to agree within the errors of the optical constants.

2,707 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that a specific gradient-index meta-surface can convert a PW to a SW with nearly 100% efficiency, and may pave the way for many applications, including high-efficiency surface plasmon couplers, anti-reflection surfaces, light absorbers, and so on.
Abstract: The arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of photonic research. Although, for example, the control of freely propagating waves (PWs) and surface waves (SWs) has separately become possible using transformation optics and metamaterials, a bridge linking both propagation types has not yet been found. Such a device has particular relevance given the many schemes of controlling electromagnetic waves at surfaces and interfaces, leading to trapped rainbows, lensing, beam bending, deflection, and even anomalous reflection/refraction. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a specific gradient-index meta-surface can convert a PW to a SW with nearly 100% efficiency. Distinct from conventional devices such as prism or grating couplers, the momentum mismatch between PW and SW is compensated by the reflection-phase gradient of the meta-surface, and a nearly perfect PW-SW conversion can happen for any incidence angle larger than a critical value. Experiments in the microwave region, including both far-field and near-field characterizations, are in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. Our findings may pave the way for many applications, including high-efficiency surface plasmon couplers, anti-reflection surfaces, light absorbers, and so on.

1,567 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: X-shooter as mentioned in this paper is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), which was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009.
Abstract: X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope(VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through dichroic splitting in three arms with optimized optics, coatings, dispersive elements and detectors. It operates at intermediate spectral resolution (R~4,000 - 17,000, depending on wavelength and slit width) with fixed echelle spectral format (prism cross-dispersers) in the three arms. It includes a 1.8"x4" Integral Field Unit as an alternative to the 11" long slits. A dedicated data reduction package delivers fully calibrated two-dimensional and extracted spectra over the full wavelength range. We describe the main characteristics of the instrument and present its performance as measured during commissioning, science verification and the first months of science operations.

1,031 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The prism coupler, known from experiments on integrated optics, can be used to determine the refractive index and the thickness of a light-guiding thin film by measuring the coupling angles at the prism and fitting them by a theoretical dispersion curve.
Abstract: The prism coupler, known from experiments on integrated optics, can be used to determine the refractive index and the thickness of a light-guiding thin film. Both parameters are obtained simultaneously and with good accuracy by measuring the coupling angles at the prism and fitting them by a theoretical dispersion curve. The fundamentals and limitations. of this method are discussed, its practical use, and mathematical procedures for the evaluation.

996 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that pairs of prisms can have negative group-velocity dispersion in the absence of any negative material dispersion.
Abstract: We show that pairs of prisms can have negative group-velocity dispersion in the absence of any negative material dispersion. A prism arrangement is described that limits losses to Brewster-surface reflections, avoids transverse displacement of the temporally dispersed rays, permits continuous adjustment of the dispersion through zero, and yields a transmitted beam collinear with the incident beam.

987 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Lens (optics)
156.4K papers, 1.2M citations
83% related
Laser
353.1K papers, 4.3M citations
79% related
Optical fiber
167K papers, 1.8M citations
76% related
Polarization (waves)
65.3K papers, 984.7K citations
76% related
Fourier transform
50.4K papers, 990.9K citations
75% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
2023410
2022896
2021334
2020698
2019830