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Problem-based learning

About: Problem-based learning is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 14252 publications have been published within this topic receiving 277781 citations. The topic is also known as: Problem based learning.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The analysis supports theory claiming that calls to increase the number of students receiving STEM degrees could be answered, at least in part, by abandoning traditional lecturing in favor of active learning and supports active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.
Abstract: creased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

5,474 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the evidence for the effectiveness of active learning and define the common forms of activelearning most relevant for engineering faculty and critically examine the core element of each method, finding broad but uneven support for the core elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning.
Abstract: This study examines the evidence for the effectiveness of active learning. It defines the common forms of active learning most relevant for engineering faculty and critically examines the core element of each method. It is found that there is broad but uneven support for the core elements of active, collaborative, cooperative and problem-based learning.

5,301 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Problem-based learning (PBL) as mentioned in this paper is an instructional method in which students learn through facilitated problem solving, where the teacher acts to facilitate the learning process rather than to provide knowledge.
Abstract: Problem-based approaches to learning have a long history of advocating experience-based education. Psychological research and theory suggests that by having students learn through the experience of solving problems, they can learn both content and thinking strategies. Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional method in which students learn through facilitated problem solving. In PBL, student learning centers on a complex problem that does not have a single correct answer. Students work in collaborative groups to identify what they need to learn in order to solve a problem. They engage in self-directed learning (SDL) and then apply their new knowledge to the problem and reflect on what they learned and the effectiveness of the strategies employed. The teacher acts to facilitate the learning process rather than to provide knowledge. The goals of PBL include helping students develop 1) flexible knowledge, 2) effective problem-solving skills, 3) SDL skills, 4) effective collaboration skills, and 5) intrinsic motivation. This article discusses the nature of learning in PBL and examines the empirical evidence supporting it. There is considerable research on the first 3 goals of PBL but little on the last 2. Moreover, minimal research has been conducted outside medical and gifted education. Understanding how these goals are achieved with less skilled learners is an important part of a research agenda for PBL. The evidence suggests that PBL is an instructional approach that offers the potential to help students develop flexible understanding and lifelong learning skills.

3,823 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is recommended that caution be exercised in making comprehensive, curriculum‐wide conversions to PBL until more is learned about (1) the extent to which faculty should direct students throughout medical training, (2) PBL methods that are less costly, (3) cognitive‐processing weaknesses shown by PBL students, and (4) the apparent high resource utilization by P BL graduates.
Abstract: The effects of problem-based learning (PBL) were examined by conducting a meta-analysis-type review of the English-language international literature from 1972 to 1992. Compared with conventional instruction, PBL, as suggested by the findings, is more nurturing and enjoyable; PBL graduates perform as well, and sometimes better, on clinical examinations and faculty evaluations; and they are more likely to enter family medicine. Further, faculty tend to enjoy teaching using PBL. However, PBL students in a few instances scored lower on basic sciences examinations and viewed themselves as less well prepared in the basic sciences than were their conventionally trained counterparts. PBL graduates tended to engage in backward reasoning rather than the forward reasoning experts engage in, and there appeared to be gaps in their cognitive knowledge base that could affect practice outcomes. The costs of PBL may slow its implementation in schools with class sizes larger than 100. While weaknesses in the criteria used to assess the outcomes of PBL and general weaknesses in study design limit the confidence one can give conclusions drawn from the literature, the authors recommend that caution be exercised in making comprehensive, curriculum-wide conversions to PBL until more is learned about (1) the extent to which faculty should direct students throughout medical training, (2) PBL methods that are less costly, (3) cognitive-processing weaknesses shown by PBL students, and (4) the apparent high resource utilization by PBL graduates.

2,695 citations

Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: This book presents the scientific basis of problem-based learning and goes on to describe the approaches to problem- based medical learning that have been developed over the years at McMaster University, largely by Barrows and Tamblyn.
Abstract: In this book, the authors address some basic problems in the learning of biomedical science, medicine, and the other health sciences Students in most medical schools, especially in basic science courses, are required to memorize a large number of ""facts,"" facts which may or may not be relevant to medical practice Problem-based learning has two fundamental postulates--the learning through problem-solving is much more effective for creating a body of knowledge usable in the future, and that physician skills most important for patients are problem-solving skills, rather than memory skills This book presents the scientific basis of problem-based learning and goes on to describe the approaches to problem-based medical learning that have been developed over the years at McMaster University, largely by Barrows and Tamblyn

2,459 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023194
2022413
2021631
2020936
2019993
2018944