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Product (category theory)

About: Product (category theory) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 44243 publications have been published within this topic receiving 960551 citations.


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Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: The Theory of Industrial Organization as discussed by the authors is the first primary text to treat the new industrial organization at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate level Rigorously analytical and filled with exercises coded to indicate level of difficulty, it provides a unified and modern treatment of the field with accessible models that are simplified to highlight robust economic ideas.
Abstract: The Theory of Industrial Organization is the first primary text to treat the new industrial organization at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate level Rigorously analytical and filled with exercises coded to indicate level of difficulty, it provides a unified and modern treatment of the field with accessible models that are simplified to highlight robust economic ideas while working at an intuitive level To aid students at different levels, each chapter is divided into a main text and supplementary section containing more advanced material Each chapter opens with elementary models and builds on this base to incorporate current research in a coherent synthesis Tirole begins with a background discussion of the theory of the firm In part I he develops the modern theory of monopoly, addressing single product and multi product pricing, static and intertemporal price discrimination, quality choice, reputation, and vertical restraints In part II, Tirole takes up strategic interaction between firms, starting with a novel treatment of the Bertrand-Cournot interdependent pricing problem He studies how capacity constraints, repeated interaction, product positioning, advertising, and asymmetric information affect competition or tacit collusion He then develops topics having to do with long term competition, including barriers to entry, contestability, exit, and research and development He concludes with a "game theory user's manual" and a section of review exercises

9,777 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Aug 2004
TL;DR: This research aims to mine and to summarize all the customer reviews of a product, and proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks.
Abstract: Merchants selling products on the Web often ask their customers to review the products that they have purchased and the associated services. As e-commerce is becoming more and more popular, the number of customer reviews that a product receives grows rapidly. For a popular product, the number of reviews can be in hundreds or even thousands. This makes it difficult for a potential customer to read them to make an informed decision on whether to purchase the product. It also makes it difficult for the manufacturer of the product to keep track and to manage customer opinions. For the manufacturer, there are additional difficulties because many merchant sites may sell the same product and the manufacturer normally produces many kinds of products. In this research, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer reviews of a product. This summarization task is different from traditional text summarization because we only mine the features of the product on which the customers have expressed their opinions and whether the opinions are positive or negative. We do not summarize the reviews by selecting a subset or rewrite some of the original sentences from the reviews to capture the main points as in the classic text summarization. Our task is performed in three steps: (1) mining product features that have been commented on by customers; (2) identifying opinion sentences in each review and deciding whether each opinion sentence is positive or negative; (3) summarizing the results. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using reviews of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

7,330 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on international investment and international trade in the product cycle and argue that it is a mistake to assume that equal access to scientific principles in all the advanced countries means equal probability of the application of these principles in the generation of new products.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on international investment and international trade in the product cycle. It is a mistake to assume that equal access to scientific principles in all the advanced countries means equal probability of the application of these principles in the generation of new products. There is ordinarily a large gap between the knowledge of a scientific principle and the embodiment of the principle in a marketable product. An entrepreneur usually has to intervene to accept the risks involved in testing whether the gap can be bridged. The United States' market offers certain unique kinds of opportunities to those who are in a position to be aware of them. The market consists of consumers with an average income that is higher than that in any other national market, and is characterized by high unit labor costs and relatively unrationed capital compared with practically all other markets. As the demand for a product expands, a certain degree of standardization usually takes place. A commitment to some set of product standards opens up technical possibilities for achieving economies of scale through mass output, and encourages long-term commitments to some given process and some fixed set of facilities.

7,068 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How lead users can be systematically identified, and how lead user percepts can be statistically identified, are explored.
Abstract: Accurate marketing research depends on accurate user judgments regarding their needs. However, for very novel products or in product categories characterized by rapid change—such as “high technology” products—most potential users will not have the real-world experience needed to problem solve and provide accurate data to inquiring market researchers. In this paper I explore the problem and propose a solution: Marketing research analyses which focus on what I term the “lead users” of a product or process. Lead users are users whose present strong needs will become general in a marketplace months or years in the future. Since lead users are familiar with conditions which lie in the future for most others, they can serve as a need-forecasting laboratory for marketing research. Moreover, since lead users often attempt to fill the need they experience, they can provide new product concept and design data as well. In this paper I explore how lead users can be systematically identified, and how lead user percept...

4,604 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202262
20212,055
20202,372
20192,457
20182,384
20172,266