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# Projection (relational algebra)

About: Projection (relational algebra) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2105 publications have been published within this topic receiving 39529 citations.

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TL;DR: The issue of determining an acceptable minimum embedding dimension is examined by looking at the behavior of near neighbors under changes in the embedding dimensions from d\ensuremath{\rightarrow}d+1 by examining the manner in which noise changes the determination of ${\mathit{d}}_{\math it{E}}$.

Abstract: We examine the issue of determining an acceptable minimum embedding dimension by looking at the behavior of near neighbors under changes in the embedding dimension from d\ensuremath{\rightarrow}d+1. When the number of nearest neighbors arising through projection is zero in dimension ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{E}}$, the attractor has been unfolded in this dimension. The precise determination of ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{E}}$ is clouded by ``noise,'' and we examine the manner in which noise changes the determination of ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{E}}$. Our criterion also indicates the error one makes by choosing an embedding dimension smaller than ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{E}}$. This knowledge may be useful in the practical analysis of observed time series.

3,375 citations

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TL;DR: If the particles are first prepared in particular quantum-mechanically correlated states, it is found that the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved over the case of initially uncorrelated particles, and a squeezing parameter is introduced which quantifies the sensitivity of an angular-momentum state to rotation.

Abstract: We investigate the properties of angular-momentum states which yield high sensitivity to rotation. We discuss the application of these ``squeezed-spin'' or correlated-particle states to spectroscopy. Transitions in an ensemble of N two-level (or, equivalently, spin-1/2) particles are assumed to be detected by observing changes in the state populations of the particles (population spectroscopy). When the particles' states are detected with 100% efficiency, the fundamental limiting noise is projection noise, the noise associated with the quantum fluctuations in the measured populations. If the particles are first prepared in particular quantum-mechanically correlated states, we find that the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved over the case of initially uncorrelated particles. We have investigated spectroscopy for a particular case of Ramsey's separated oscillatory method where the radiation pulse lengths are short compared to the time between pulses. We introduce a squeezing parameter ${\ensuremath{\xi}}_{\mathit{R}}$ which is the ratio of the statistical uncertainty in the determination of the resonance frequency when using correlated states vs that when using uncorrelated states. More generally, this squeezing parameter quantifies the sensitivity of an angular-momentum state to rotation. Other squeezing parameters which are relevant for use in other contexts can be defined. We discuss certain states which exhibit squeezing parameters ${\ensuremath{\xi}}_{\mathit{R}}$\ensuremath{\simeq}${\mathit{N}}^{\mathrm{\ensuremath{-}}1/2}$. We investigate possible experimental schemes for generation of squeezed-spin states which might be applied to the spectroscopy of trapped atomic ions. We find that applying a Jaynes-Cummings--type coupling between the ensemble of two-level systems and a suitably prepared harmonic oscillator results in correlated states with ${\ensuremath{\xi}}_{\mathit{R}}$1.

908 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a parametric ordering convention is introduced according to which normal, symmetric, and antinormal ordering correspond to the values $s=+1,0,\ensuremath{-}1, respectively, of an order parameter $s$.

Abstract: The expansion of operators as ordered power series in the annihilation and creation operators $a$ and ${a}^{\ifmmode\dagger\else\textdagger\fi{}}$ is examined. It is found that normally ordered power series exist and converge quite generally, but that for the case of antinormal ordering the required $c$-number coefficients are infinite for important classes of operators. A parametric ordering convention is introduced according to which normal, symmetric, and antinormal ordering correspond to the values $s=+1,0,\ensuremath{-}1$, respectively, of an order parameter $s$. In terms of this convention it is shown that for bounded operators the coefficients are finite when $sg0$, and the series are convergent when $sg\frac{1}{2}$. For each value of the order parameter $s$, a correspondence between operators and $c$-number functions is defined. Each correspondence is one-to-one and has the property that the function $f(\ensuremath{\alpha})$ associated with a given operator $F$ is the one which results when the operators $a$ and ${a}^{\ifmmode\dagger\else\textdagger\fi{}}$ occurring in the ordered power series for $F$ are replaced by their complex eigenvalues $\ensuremath{\alpha}$ and ${\ensuremath{\alpha}}^{*}$. The correspondence which is realized for symmetric ordering is the Weyl correspondence. The operators associated by each correspondence with the set of $\ensuremath{\delta}$ functions on the complex plane are discussed in detail. They are shown to furnish, for each ordering, an operator basis for an integral representation for arbitrary operators. The weight functions in these representations are simply the functions that correspond to the operators being expanded. The representation distinguished by antinormal ordering expresses operators as integrals of projection operators upon the coherent states, which is the form taken by the $P$ representation for the particular case of the density operator. The properties of the full set of representations are discussed and are shown to vary markedly with the order parameter $s$.

853 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that Dk can be calculated simply on the basis of second derivatives of f so that the resulting Newton-like algorithm has a typically superlinear rate of convergence.

Abstract: We consider the problem $\min \{ f(x)|x \geqq 0\} $, and propose algorithms of the form $x_{k + 1} = [x_k - \alpha _k D_k
abla f(x_k )]^ + $, where $[ \cdot ]^ + $ denotes projection on the positive orthant, $\alpha _k $ is a stepsize chosen by an Armijo-like rule and $D_k $ is a positive definite symmetric matrix which is partly diagonal. We show that $D_k $ can be calculated simply on the basis of second derivatives of f so that the resulting Newton-like algorithm has a typically superlinear rate of convergence. With other choices of $D_k $ convergence at a typically linear rate is obtained. The algorithms are almost as simple as their unconstrained counterparts. They are well suited for problems of large dimension such as those arising in optimal control while being competitive with existing methods for low-dimensional problems. The effectiveness of the Newton-like algorithm is demonstrated via computational examples involving as many as 10,000 variables. Extensions to general linearly constrained pr...

631 citations

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TL;DR: In the experiments described here, a single ion or a few identical ions were prepared in well-defined superpositions of two internal energy eigenstates, and the populations of the energy levels were measured.

Abstract: Measurements of internal energy states of atomic ions confined in traps can be used to illustrate fundamental properties of quantum systems, because long relaxation times and observation times are available. In the experiments described here, a single ion or a few identical ions were prepared in well-defined superpositions of two internal energy eigenstates. The populations of the energy levels were then measured. For an individual ion, the outcome of the measurement is uncertain, unless the amplitude for one of the two eigenstates is zero, and is completely uncertain when the magnitudes of the two amplitudes are equal. In one experiment, a single $^{199}\mathrm{Hg}^{+}$ ion, confined in a linear rf trap, was prepared in various superpositions of two hyperfine states. In another experiment, groups of $^{9}\mathrm{Be}^{+}$ ions, ranging in size from about 5 to about 400 ions, were confined in a Penning trap and prepared in various superposition states. The measured population fluctuations were greater when the state amplitudes were equal than when one of the amplitudes was nearly zero, in agreement with the predictions of quantum mechanics. These fluctuations, which we call quantum projection noise, are the fundamental source of noise for population measurements with a fixed number of atoms. These fluctuations are of practical importance, since they contribute to the errors of atomic frequency standards.

525 citations