About: Propidium iodide is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8483 publications have been published within this topic receiving 271047 citations. The topic is also known as: propidium diiodide & 3,8-diamino-5-(3-(diethylmethylammonio)propyl)-6-phenylphenanthridinium diiodide.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The Annexin V assay offers the possibility of detecting early phases of apoptosis before the loss of cell membrane integrity and permits measurements of the kinetics of apoptotic death in relation to the cell cycle.
Abstract: In the early stages of apoptosis changes occur at the cell surface, which until now have remained difficult to recognize. One of these plasma membrane alterations is the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner side of the plasma membrane to the outer layer, by which PS becomes exposed at the external surface of the cell. Annexin V is a Ca2+ dependent phospholipid-binding protein with high affinity for PS. Hence this protein can be used as a sensitive probe for PS exposure upon the cell membrane. Translocation of PS to the external cell surface is not unique to apoptosis, but occurs also during cell necrosis. The difference between these two forms of cell death is that during the initial stages of apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact, while at the very moment that necrosis occurs the cell membrane looses its integrity and becomes leaky. Therefore the measurement of Annexin V binding to the cell surface as indicative for apoptosis has to be performed in conjunction with a dye exclusion test to establish integrity of the cell membrane. This paper describes the results of such an assay, as obtained in cultured HSB-2 cells, rendered apoptotic by irradiation and in human lymphocytes, following dexamethasone treatment. Untreated and treated cells were evaluated for apoptosis by light microscopy, by measuring the amount of hypo-diploid cells using of DNA flow cytometry (FCM) and by DNA electrophoresis to establish whether or not DNA fragmentation had occurred. Annexin V binding was assessed using bivariate FCM, and cell staining was evaluated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Annexin V (green fluorescence), simultaneously with dye exclusion of propidium iodide (PI) (negative for red fluorescence). The test described, discriminates intact cells (FITC−/PI−), apoptotic cells (FITC+/PI−) and necrotic cells (FITC+/PI+). In comparison with existing traditional tests the Annexin V assay is sensitive and easy to perform. The Annexin V assay offers the possibility of detecting early phases of apoptosis before the loss of cell membrane integrity and permits measurements of the kinetics of apoptotic death in relation to the cell cycle. More extensive FCM will allow discrimination between different cell subpopulations, that may or may not be involved in the apoptotic process.
TL;DR: A flow cytometric method for measuring the percentage of apoptotic nuclei after propidium iodide staining in hypotonic buffer is developed and shown an excellent correlation with the results obtained with both electrophoretic and colorimetric methods.
Abstract: Corticosteroids, calcium ionophores and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies kill mouse thymocytes incubated in vitro. Cell death is preceded by extensive DNA fragmentation into oligonucleosomal subunits. This type of cell death (apoptosis), which physiologically occurs in the intrathymic process of immune cell selection, is usually evaluated by either electrophoretic or colorimetric methods which measure DNA fragmentation in the nuclear extracts. These techniques are unable to determine the percentage of apoptotic nuclei or recognize the apoptotic cells in a heterogeneous cell population. We have developed a flow cytometric method for measuring the percentage of apoptotic nuclei after propidium iodide staining in hypotonic buffer and have compared it with the classical colorimetric and electrophoretic techniques using dexamethasone (DEX)-treated mouse thymocytes. Apoptotic nuclei appeared as a broad hypodiploid DNA peak which was easily discriminable from the narrow peak of thymocytes with normal (diploid) DNA content in the red fluorescence channels. When the DEX-induced apoptosis was inhibited by either low-temperature (4 degrees C) incubation or cycloheximide treatment, no hypodiploid DNA peak appeared. Similarly, thymocyte death induced by sodium azide, a substance with cell-killing activity through non-apoptotic mechanisms, did not result in any variation in the normal DNA peak. The flow cytometric data showed an excellent correlation with the results obtained with both electrophoretic and colorimetric methods. This new rapid, simple and reproducible method should prove useful for assessing apoptosis of specific cell populations in heterogeneous tissues such as bone marrow, thymus and lymph nodes.
TL;DR: A possible mechanism of toxicity is proposed which involves disruption of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by Ag-np leading to production of ROS and interruption of ATP synthesis, which in turn cause DNA damage.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) are being used increasingly in wound dressings, catheters, and various household products due to their antimicrobial activity. The toxicity of starch-coated silver nanoparticles was studied using normal human lung fibroblast cells (IMR-90) and human glioblastoma cells (U251). The toxicity was evaluated using changes in cell morphology, cell viability, metabolic activity, and oxidative stress. Ag-np reduced ATP content of the cell caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. DNA damage, as measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN), was also dose-dependent and more prominent in the cancer cells. The nanoparticle treatment caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase possibly due to repair of damaged DNA. Annexin-V propidium iodide (PI) staining showed no massive apoptosis or necrosis. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis indicated the presen...
TL;DR: The present review describes several methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, applied to studies of apoptosis triggered in the human leukemic HL-60 cell line by DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, and in rat thymocytes by either topoisomersase inhibitors or prednisolone.
Abstract: The present review describes several methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. Most of these methods were applied to studies of apoptosis triggered in the human leukemic HL-60 cell line by DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, and in rat thymocytes by either topoisomerase inhibitors or prednisolone. In most cases, apoptosis was selective to cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle: only S-phase HL-60 cells and G0 thymocytes were mainly affected. Necrosis was induced by excessively high concentrations of these drugs. The following cell features were found useful to characterize the mode of cell death: a) Activation of an endonuclease in apoptocic cells resulted in extraction of the low molecular weight DNA following cell permeabilization, which, in turn, led to their decreased stainability with DNA-specific fluorochromes. Measurements of DNA content made it possible to identify apoptotic cells and to recognize the cell cycle phase specificity of the apoptotic process. b) Plasma membrane integrity, which is lost in necrotic but not apoptotic cells, was probed by the exclusion of propidium iodide (PI). The combination of PI followed by Hoechst 33342 proved to be an excellent probe to distinguish live, necrotic, early- and late-apoptotic cells. c) Mitochondrial transmembrane potential, assayed by retention of rhodamine 123 was preserved in apoptotic but not necrotic cells. d) The ATP-dependent lysosomal proton pump, tested by the supravital uptake of acridine orange (AO) was also preserved in apoptotic but not necrotic cells. e) Bivariate analysis of cells stained for DNA and protein revealed markedly diminished protein content in apoptotic cells, most likely due to activation of endogenous proteases. Necrotic cells, having leaky membranes, had minimal protein content. f) Staining of RNA allowed for the discrimination of G0 from G1 cells and thus made it possible to reveal that apoptosis was selective to G0 thymocytes. g) The decrease in forward light scatter, paralleled either by no change (HL-60 cells) or an increase (thymocytes) of right angle scatter, were early changes during apoptosis. h) The sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation, was increased in apoptotic and necrotic cells. This feature, probed by staining with AO at low pH, provided a sensitive and early assay to discriminate between live, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and to evaluate the cell cycle phase specificity of these processes. i) The in situ nick translation assay employing labeled triphosphonucleotides can be used to reveal DNA strand breaks, to detect the very early stages of apoptosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
TL;DR: A rapid method for the flow microfluorometric determination of the DNA content per cell is described, which requires a minimal amount of material, and avoids formation of cell clumps.
Abstract: A rapid method for the flow microfluorometric determination of the DNA content per cell is described. Incubation of cells in a hypotonic solution of propidium iodide results in disruption of the cell membrane and rapid staining of nuclear chromatin. DNA distribution histograms generated from cells stained by this method are identical to those generated after fixation and RNase digestion. In contrast to some earlier described methods, the present technique is rapid (5 min of processing), requires a minimal amount of material, and avoids formation of cell clumps.