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Prospective cohort study

About: Prospective cohort study is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 38527 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1857343 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Prospective Studies & prospective study.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0021-9681(87)90171-8
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.

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Topics: Risk of mortality (53%), Prospective cohort study (53%), Comorbidity (53%) ...read more

34,129 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA021423
Abstract: background The influence of excess body weight on the risk of death from cancer has not been fully characterized. methods In a prospectively studied population of more than 900,000 U.S. adults (404,576 men and 495,477 women) who were free of cancer at enrollment in 1982, there were 57,145 deaths from cancer during 16 years of follow-up. We examined the relation in men and women between the body-mass index in 1982 and the risk of death from all cancers and from cancers at individual sites, while controlling for other risk factors in multivariate proportional-hazards models. We calculated the proportion of all deaths from cancer that was attributable to overweight and obesity in the U.S. population on the basis of risk estimates from the current study and national estimates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the U.S. adult population. results The heaviest members of this cohort (those with a body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] of at least 40) had death rates from all cancers combined that were 52 percent higher (for men) and 62 percent higher (for women) than the rates in men and women of normal weight. For men, the relative risk of death was 1.52 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 2.05); for women, the relative risk was 1.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.40 to 1.87). In both men and women, body-mass index was also significantly associated with higher rates of death due to cancer of the esophagus, colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney; the same was true for death due to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Significant trends of increasing risk with higher body-mass-index values were observed for death from cancers of the stomach and prostate in men and for death from cancers of the breast, uterus, cervix, and ovary in women. On the basis of associations observed in this study, we estimate that current patterns of overweight and obesity in the United States could account for 14 percent of all deaths from cancer in men and 20 percent of those in women. conclusions Increased body weight was associated with increased death rates for all cancers combined and for cancers at multiple specific sites.

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Topics: Overweight (55%), Mortality rate (55%), Population (54%) ...read more

6,611 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.38142.554479.AE
24 Jun 2004-BMJ
Abstract: In 1951 the British Medical Association forwarded to all British doctors a questionnaire about their smoking habits, and 34440 men replied. With few exceptions, all men who replied in 1951 have been followed for 20 years. The certified causes of all 10 072 deaths and subsequent changes in smoking habits were recorded. The ratio of the death rate among cigarette smokers to that among lifelong non-smokers of comparable age was, for men under 70 years, about 2:1, while for men over 70 years it was about 1-5:1. These ratios suggest that between a half and a third of all cigarette smokers will die because of their smoking, if the excess death rates are actually caused by smoking. To investigate whether this is the case, the relation of many different causes of death to age and tobacco consumption were examined, as were the effects of giving up smoking. Smoking caused death chiefly by heart disease among middle-aged men (and, with a less extreme relative risk, among old men,) lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease, and various vascular diseases. The distinctive features of this study were the completeness of follow-up, the accuracy of death certification, and the fact that the study population as a whole reduced its cigarette consumption substantially during the period of observation. As a result lung cancer grew relatively less common as the study progressed, but other cancers did not, thus illustrating in an unusual way the causal nature of the association between smoking and lung cancer.

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Topics: Smoking cessation (61%), British Doctors Study (58%), Cause of death (54%) ...read more

5,176 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0895-4356(94)90129-5
Abstract: The basic objective of this paper is to evaluate an age-comorbidity index in a cohort of patients who were originally enrolled in a prospective study to identify risk factors for peri-operative complications. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients were enrolled in the study. The participants were patients with hypertension or diabetes who underwent elective surgery between 1982 and 1985 and who survived to discharge. Two-hundred and eighteen patients survived until discharge. These patients were followed for at least five years post-operatively. The estimated relative risk of death for each comorbidity rank was 1.4 and for each decade of age was 1.4. When age and comorbidity were modelled as a combined age-comorbidity score, the estimated relative risk for each combined age-comorbidity unit was 1.45. Thus, the estimated relative risk of death from an increase of one in the comorbidity score proved approximately equal to that from an additional decade of age. The combined age-comorbidity score may be useful in some longitudinal studies to estimate relative risk of death from prognostic clinical covariates.

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Topics: Comorbidity (57%), Relative risk (56%), Cohort study (54%) ...read more

4,484 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM200005113421901
Abstract: Background Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). Methods We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea–hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to...

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Topics: Hypopnea (64%), Apnea–hypopnea index (62%), Polysomnography (59%) ...read more

4,201 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202223
20213,585
20202,932
20192,643
20182,443
20172,596

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Walter C. Willett

289 papers, 58.1K citations

Anne Tjønneland

275 papers, 18K citations

Edward Giovannucci

222 papers, 28.5K citations

Kim Overvad

206 papers, 15.9K citations

Elio Riboli

185 papers, 19.1K citations

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