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Proteases

About: Proteases is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 18916 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 852716 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Apr 2020-Cell
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS -CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming, and it is shown that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized Sars-2-S-driven entry.
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

10,193 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Nov 1998-Science
Abstract: Caspases are intracellular proteases that function as initiators and effectors of apoptosis. The kinase Akt and p21-Ras, an Akt activator, induced phosphorylation of pro-caspase-9 (pro-Casp9) in cells. Cytochrome c-induced proteolytic processing of pro-Casp9 was defective in cytosolic extracts from cells expressing either active Ras or Akt. Akt phosphorylated recombinant Casp9 in vitro on serine-196 and inhibited its protease activity. Mutant pro-Casp9(Ser196Ala) was resistant to Akt-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition in vitro and in cells, resulting in Akt-resistant induction of apoptosis. Thus, caspases can be directly regulated by protein phosphorylation.

3,241 citations

01 Jan 1999
Abstract: ■ Abstract Apoptosis is a genetically programmed, morphologically distinct form of cell death that can be triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli. Studies performed over the past 10 years have demonstrated that proteases play critical roles in initiation and execution of this process. The caspases, a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases, are prominent among the death proteases. Caspases are synthesized as relatively inactive zymogens that become activated by scaffold-mediated transactivation or by cleavage via upstream proteases in an intracellular cascade. Regulation of caspase activation and activity occurs at several different levels: ( a) Zymogen gene transcription is regulated; ( b) antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and other cellular polypeptides block proximity-induced activation of certain procaspases; and ( c) certain cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) can bind to and inhibit active caspases. Once activated, caspases cleave a variety of intracellular polypeptides, including major structural elements of the cytoplasm and nucleus, components of the DNA repair machinery, and a number of protein kinases. Collectively, these scissions disrupt survival pathways and disassemble important architectural components of the cell, contributing to the stereotypic morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptotic cell death.

2,685 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Sep 1994-Nature
TL;DR: A novel protease resembling ICE (prICE) that is active in a cell-free system that reproduces the morphological and biochemical events of apoptosis in the extracts including morphological changes, cleavage of PARP and production of an oligonucleosomal ladder.
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that proteases of the interleukin 1-beta-converting enzyme (ICE)/ced-3 family are involved in initiating the active phase of apoptosis. Here we identify a novel protease resembling ICE (prICE) that is active in a cell-free system that reproduces the morphological and biochemical events of apoptosis. prICE cleaves the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at a tetrapeptide sequence identical to one of two ICE sites in pro-interleukin-1-beta. However, prICE does not cleave purified pro-interleukin-1-beta, and purified ICE does not cleave PARP, indicating that the two activities are distinct. Inhibition of prICE abolishes all manifestations of apoptosis in the extracts including morphological changes, cleavage of PARP and production of an oligonucleosomal ladder. These studies suggest that prICE might be pivotal in initiating the active phase of apoptosis in vitro and in intact cells.

2,585 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202212
2021575
2020625
2019537
2018528
2017578