About: Proteasome is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10986 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 705609 citation(s). The topic is also known as: GO:0000502 & proteasome.
09 Sep 1994-Cell
TL;DR: Peptide aldehydes that inhibit major peptidase activities of the 20S and 26S proteasomes are shown to reduce the degradation of protein and ubiquitinated protein substrates by 26S particles.
Abstract: Reagents that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in cells have not been available. Peptide aldehydes that inhibit major peptidase activities of the 20S and 26S proteasomes are shown to reduce the degradation of protein and ubiquitinated protein substrates by 26S particles. Unlike inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis, these compounds inhibit the degradation of not only abnormal and short-lived polypeptides but also long-lived proteins in intact cells. We used these agents to test the importance of the proteasome in antigen presentation. When ovalbumin is introduced into the cytosol of lymphoblasts, these inhibitors block the presentation on MHC class I molecules of an ovalbumin-derived peptide by preventing its proteolytic generation. By preventing peptide production from cell proteins, these inhibitors block the assembly of class I molecules. Therefore, the proteasome catalyzes the degradation of the vast majority of cell proteins and generates most peptides presented on MHC class I molecules.
01 Jan 1996-Annual Review of Biochemistry
TL;DR: Major advances have been achieved recently in knowledge about the molecular organization of the 20S and 19S particles, their subunits, the proteasome's role in MHC-class 1 antigen presentation, and regulators of its activities.
Abstract: The proteasome is an essential component of the ATP-dependent proteolytic pathway in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for the degradation of most cellular proteins. The 20S (700-kDa) proteasome contains multiple peptidase activities that function through a new type of proteolytic mechanism involving a threonine active site. The 26S (2000-kDa) complex, which degrades ubiquitinated proteins, contains in addition to the 20S proteasome a 19S regulatory complex composed of multiple ATPases and components necessary for binding protein substrates. The proteasome has been highly conserved during eukaryotic evolution, and simpler forms are even found in archaebacteria and eubacteria. Major advances have been achieved recently in our knowledge about the molecular organization of the 20S and 19S particles, their subunits, the proteasome's role in MHC-class 1 antigen presentation, and regulators of its activities. This article focuses on recent progress concerning the biochemical mechanisms and intracellular functions of the 20S and 26S proteasomes.
01 Jul 1997-The EMBO Journal
TL;DR: It is shown that ubiquitination of β‐catenin is greatly reduced in Wnt‐expressing cells, providing the first evidence that the ubiquitin–proteasome degradation pathway may act downstream of GSK3β in the regulation ofβ‐ catenin.
Abstract: beta-catenin is a central component of the cadherin cell adhesion complex and plays an essential role in the Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway. In the current model of this pathway, the amount of beta-catenin (or its invertebrate homolog Armadillo) is tightly regulated and its steady-state level outside the cadherin-catenin complex is low in the absence of Wingless/Wnt signal. Here we show that the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis system is involved in the regulation of beta-catenin turnover. beta-catenin, but not E-cadherin, p120(cas) or alpha-catenin, becomes stabilized when proteasome-mediated proteolysis is inhibited and this leads to the accumulation of multi-ubiquitinated forms of beta-catenin. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that substitution of the serine residues in the glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylation consensus motif of beta-catenin inhibits ubiquitination and results in stabilization of the protein. This motif in beta-catenin resembles a motif in IkappaB (inhibitor of NFkappaB) which is required for the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IkappaB via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We show that ubiquitination of beta-catenin is greatly reduced in Wnt-expressing cells, providing the first evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway may act downstream of GSK3beta in the regulation of beta-catenin.
28 Dec 1998-Journal of Cell Biology
TL;DR: The intracellular fate of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is investigated and it is demonstrated that undegraded CFTR molecules accumulate at a distinct pericentriolar structure which is termed the aggresome.
Abstract: Intracellular deposition of misfolded protein aggregates into ubiquitin-rich cytoplasmic inclusions is linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Why these aggregates form despite the existence of cellular machinery to recognize and degrade misfolded protein and how they are delivered to cytoplasmic inclusions are not known. We have investigated the intracellular fate of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an inefficiently folded integral membrane protein which is degraded by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Overexpression or inhibition of proteasome activity in transfected human embryonic kidney or Chinese hamster ovary cells led to the accumulation of stable, high molecular weight, detergent-insoluble, multiubiquitinated forms of CFTR. Using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy with immunogold labeling, we demonstrate that undegraded CFTR molecules accumulate at a distinct pericentriolar structure which we have termed the aggresome. Aggresome formation is accompanied by redistribution of the intermediate filament protein vimentin to form a cage surrounding a pericentriolar core of aggregated, ubiquitinated protein. Disruption of microtubules blocks the formation of aggresomes. Similarly, inhibition of proteasome function also prevented the degradation of unassembled presenilin-1 molecules leading to their aggregation and deposition in aggresomes. These data lead us to propose that aggresome formation is a general response of cells which occurs when the capacity of the proteasome is exceeded by the production of aggregation-prone misfolded proteins.
TL;DR: The identification of an oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain within HIF-1alpha that controls its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is reported and may provide a means of controlling gene expression by changes in oxygen tension.
Abstract: Hypoxia induces a group of physiologically important genes such as erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor. These genes are transcriptionally up-regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a global regulator that belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix PAS family. Although HIF-1 is a heterodimer composed of α and β subunits, its activity is primarily determined by hypoxia-induced stabilization of HIF-1α, which is otherwise rapidly degraded in oxygenated cells. We report the identification of an oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain within HIF-1α that controls its degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The ODD domain consists of ≈200 amino acid residues, located in the central region of HIF-1α. Because portions of the domain independently confer degradation of HIF-1α, deletion of this entire region is required to give rise to a stable HIF-1α, capable of heterodimerization, DNA-binding, and transactivation in the absence of hypoxic signaling. Conversely, the ODD domain alone confers oxygen-dependent instability when fused to a stable protein, Gal4. Hence, the ODD domain plays a pivotal role for regulating HIF-1 activity and thereby may provide a means of controlling gene expression by changes in oxygen tension.