About: Protein filament is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10833 publications have been published within this topic receiving 226190 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown that a single molecule of F1-ATPase acts as a rotary motor, the smallest known, by direct observation of its motion by attaching a fluorescent actin filament to the γ-subunit as a marker, which enabled us to observe this motion directly.
Abstract: Cells employ a variety of linear motors, such as myosin, kinesin and RNA polymerase, which move along and exert force on a filamentous structure. But only one rotary motor has been investigated in detail, the bacterial flagellum (a complex of about 100 protein molecules). We now show that a single molecule of F1-ATPase acts as a rotary motor, the smallest known, by direct observation of its motion. A central rotor of radius approximately 1 nm, formed by its gamma-subunit, turns in a stator barrel of radius approximately 5nm formed by three alpha- and three beta-subunits. F1-ATPase, together with the membrane-embedded proton-conducting unit F0, forms the H+-ATP synthase that reversibly couples transmembrane proton flow to ATP synthesis/hydrolysis in respiring and photosynthetic cells. It has been suggested that the gamma-subunit of F1-ATPase rotates within the alphabeta-hexamer, a conjecture supported by structural, biochemical and spectroscopic studies. We attached a fluorescent actin filament to the gamma-subunit as a marker, which enabled us to observe this motion directly. In the presence of ATP, the filament rotated for more than 100 revolutions in an anticlockwise direction when viewed from the 'membrane' side. The rotary torque produced reached more than 40 pN nm(-1) under high load.
TL;DR: The first accurate measurements of the flexural rigidity of microtubules are reported, showing that a microtubule is rigid over cellular dimensions and is expected to be almost inextensible.
Abstract: Microtubules are long, proteinaceous filaments that perform structural functions in eukaryotic cells by defining cellular shape and serving as tracks for intracellular motor proteins. We report the first accurate measurements of the flexural rigidity of microtubules. By analyzing the thermally driven fluctuations in their shape, we estimated the mean flexural rigidity of taxol-stabilized microtubules to be 2.2 x 10(-23) Nm2 (with 6.4% uncertainty) for seven unlabeled microtubules and 2.1 x 10(-23) Nm2 (with 4.7% uncertainty) for eight rhodamine-labeled microtubules. These values are similar to earlier, less precise estimates of microtubule bending stiffness obtained by modeling flagellar motion. A similar analysis on seven rhodamine-phalloidin-labeled actin filaments gave a flexural rigidity of 7.3 x 10(-26) Nm2 (with 6% uncertainty), consistent with previously reported results. The flexural rigidity of these microtubules corresponds to a persistence length of 5,200 microns showing that a microtubule is rigid over cellular dimensions. By contrast, the persistence length of an actin filament is only approximately 17.7 microns, perhaps explaining why actin filaments within cells are usually cross-linked into bundles. The greater flexural rigidity of a microtubule compared to an actin filament mainly derives from the former's larger cross-section. If tubulin were homogeneous and isotropic, then the microtubule's Young's modulus would be approximately 1.2 GPa, similar to Plexiglas and rigid plastics. Microtubules are expected to be almost inextensible: the compliance of cells is due primarily to filament bending or sliding between filaments rather than the stretching of the filaments themselves.
TL;DR: A unique orientation of the monomer with respect to the actin helix has been found and the main interactions are along the two-start helix with a contribution from a loop extending across the filament axis provided by the molecule in the adjacent strand.
Abstract: The F-actin filament has been constructed from the atomic structure of the actin monomer to fit the observed X-ray fibre diagram from oriented gels of F-actin. A unique orientation of the monomer with respect to the actin helix has been found. The main interactions are along the two-start helix with a contribution from a loop extending across the filament axis provided by the molecule in the adjacent strand. There are also contacts along the left-handed genetic helix.
TL;DR: It is shown that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum, which induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.
Abstract: Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.
TL;DR: The architecture of sequences in the A band region of titin suggests why thick filament structure is conserved among vertebrates and compares two elements that correlate with tissue stiffness that suggest that titin may act as two springs in series.
Abstract: In addition to thick and thin filaments, vertebrate striated muscle contains a third filament system formed by the giant protein titin. Single titin molecules extend from Z discs to M lines and are longer than 1 micrometer. The titin filament contributes to muscle assembly and resting tension, but more details are not known because of the large size of the protein. The complete complementary DNA sequence of human cardiac titin was determined. The 82-kilobase complementary DNA predicts a 3-megadalton protein composed of 244 copies of immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III (FN3) domains. The architecture of sequences in the A band region of titin suggests why thick filament structure is conserved among vertebrates. In the I band region, comparison of titin sequences from muscles of different passive tension identifies two elements that correlate with tissue stiffness. This suggests that titin may act as two springs in series. The differential expression of the springs provides a molecular explanation for the diversity of sarcomere length and resting tension in vertebrate striated muscles.