About: Proteolytic enzymes is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 23096 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 835544 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A rapid and convenient method for peptide mapping of proteins has been developed that involves partial enzymatic proteolysis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and analysis of the cleavage products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Abstract: A rapid and convenient method for peptide mapping of proteins has been developed. The technique, which is especially suitable for analysis of proteins that have been isolated from gels containg sodium dodecyl sulfate, involves partial enzymatic proteolysis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and analysis of the cleavage products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The pattern of peptide fragments produced is characteristic of the protein substrate and the proteolytic enzyme and is highly reproducible. Several common proteases have been used including chymotrypsin, Staphylococcus aureus protease, and papain.
01 Jan 1984-Endocrine Reviews
TL;DR: It is proposed that stress-induced increases in glucocorticoid levels protect not against the source of stress itself but rather against the body's normal reactions to stress, preventing those reactions from overshooting and themselves threatening homeostasis.
Abstract: Introduction and Background Modern glucocorticoid endocrinology is a colorful, richly varied, but formless discipline—a profusion of cellular, physiological and pharmacological effects, seemingly unrelated through any central hormonal function. A current list of glucocorticoid effects might include such disparate items as stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, inhibition of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues, suppression of inflammation, enhanced excretion of a water load, induction in various cells of tryptophan oxygenase and glutamine synthetase, suppression of numerous immune reactions, inhibition of secretion of several hormones and neuropeptides, and inhibition of activity of plasminogen activator and other neutral proteinases. Judging from recent writings on glucocorticoid physiology, an item that might be low on the list or missing altogether is “increased resistance to stress”.
TL;DR: How PEGylation can result in drugs that are often more effective and safer, and which show improved patient convenience and compliance are reviewed.
Abstract: Protein and peptide drugs hold great promise as therapeutic agents. However, many are degraded by proteolytic enzymes, can be rapidly cleared by the kidneys, generate neutralizing antibodies and have a short circulating half-life. Pegylation, the process by which polyethylene glycol chains are attached to protein and peptide drugs, can overcome these and other shortcomings. By increasing the molecular mass of proteins and peptides and shielding them from proteolytic enzymes, pegylation improves pharmacokinetics. This article will review how PEGylation can result in drugs that are often more effective and safer, and which show improved patient convenience and compliance.
02 Jun 2004-Analytical Chemistry
TL;DR: A linear dynamic range over 2 orders of magnitude is demonstrated by using the number of spectra (spectral sampling) acquired for each protein by the data-dependent acquisition of peptides eluting into the mass spectrometer.
Abstract: Proteomic analysis of complex protein mixtures using proteolytic digestion and liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry is a standard approach in biological studies. Data-dependent acquisition is used to automatically acquire tandem mass spectra of peptides eluting into the mass spectrometer. In more complicated mixtures, for example, whole cell lysates, data-dependent acquisition incompletely samples among the peptide ions present rather than acquiring tandem mass spectra for all ions available. We analyzed the sampling process and developed a statistical model to accurately predict the level of sampling expected for mixtures of a specific complexity. The model also predicts how many analyses are required for saturated sampling of a complex protein mixture. For a yeast-soluble cell lysate 10 analyses are required to reach a 95% saturation level on protein identifications based on our model. The statistical model also suggests a relationship between the level of sampling observed for a protein and the relative abundance of the protein in the mixture. We demonstrate a linear dynamic range over 2 orders of magnitude by using the number of spectra (spectral sampling) acquired for each protein.
01 Jan 1999-Nucleic Acids Research
TL;DR: The MEROPS database has added an analysis tool to the relevant species pages to show significant gains and losses of peptidase genes relative to related species, and has collected over 39 000 known cleavage sites in proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates.
Abstract: Peptidases (proteolytic enzymes) are of great relevance to biology, medicine and biotechnology. This practical importance creates a need for an integrated source of information about them, and also about their natural inhibitors. The MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) aims to fill this need. The organizational principle of the database is a hierarchical classification in which homologous sets of the proteins of interest are grouped in families and the homologous families are grouped in clans. Each peptidase, family and clan has a unique identifier. The database has recently been expanded to include the protein inhibitors of peptidases, and these are classified in much the same way as the peptidases. Forms of information recently added include new links to other databases, summary alignments for peptidase clans, displays to show the distribution of peptidases and inhibitors among organisms, substrate cleavage sites and indexes for expressed sequence tag libraries containing peptidases. A new way of making hyperlinks to the database has been devised and a BlastP search of our library of peptidase and inhibitor sequences has been added.
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