Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
About: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 27367 publications have been published within this topic receiving 746301 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors quantified the activities and voltage loss modes for state-of-the-art MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), specifies performance goals needed for automotive application, and provides benchmark oxygen reduction activities for state of the art platinum electrocatalysts.
Abstract: The mass production of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered light-duty vehicles requires a reduction in the amount of Pt presently used in fuel cells. This paper quantifies the activities and voltage loss modes for state-of-the-art MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), specifies performance goals needed for automotive application, and provides benchmark oxygen reduction activities for state-of-the-art platinum electrocatalysts using two different testing procedures to clearly establish the relative merit of candidate catalysts. A pathway to meet the automotive goals is charted, involving the further development of durable, high-activity Pt-alloy catalysts. The history, status in recent experiments, and prospects for Pt-alloy cathode catalysts are reviewed. The performance that would be needed for a cost-free non-Pt catalyst is defined quantitatively, and the behaviors of several published non-Pt catalyst systems (and logical extensions thereof), are compared to these requirements. Critical research topics are listed for the Pt-alloy catalysts, which appear to represent the most likely route to automotive fuel cells.
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: In this paper, the first edition of this paper, the authors presented an analysis of fuel cell systems and their performance in terms of Molar Gibbs Free Energy Calculations (GFE) and Open Circuit Voltage.
Abstract: Preface. Foreword to the first edition. Acknowledgements. Abbreviations. Symbols. Introduction. Efficiency and Open Circuit Voltage. Operational Fuel Cell Voltages. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. Alkaline Electrolyte Fuel Cells. Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Medium and High Temperature Fuel Cells. Fuelling Fuel Cells. Compressors, Turbines, Ejectors, Fans, Blowers, and Pumps. Delivering Fuel Cell Power. Fuel Cell Systems Analysed. Appendix 1: Change in Molar Gibbs Free Energy Calculations. Appendix 2: Useful Fuel Cell Equations. Index.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the Pt3Ni( 111) surface is 10-fold more active for the ORR than the corresponding Pt(111) surface and 90-foldMore active than the current state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC.
Abstract: The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is the main limitation for automotive applications. We demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) surface is 10-fold more active for the ORR than the corresponding Pt(111) surface and 90-fold more active than the current state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC. The Pt3Ni(111) surface has an unusual electronic structure (d-band center position) and arrangement of surface atoms in the near-surface region. Under operating conditions relevant to fuel cells, its near-surface layer exhibits a highly structured compositional oscillation in the outermost and third layers, which are Pt-rich, and in the second atomic layer, which is Ni-rich. The weak interaction between the Pt surface atoms and nonreactive oxygenated species increases the number of active sites for O2 adsorption.
TL;DR: Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications as mentioned in this paper, and the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell are discussed.
Abstract: A ceramic fuel cell in an all solid-state energy conversion device that produces electricity by electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant gases across an ionic conducting oxide. Current ceramic fuel cells use an oxygen-ion conductor or a proton conductor as the electrolyte and operate at high temperatures (>600°C). Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications. This paper reviews the science and technology of ceramic fuel cells and discusses the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell. The emphasis is given to the discussion of component materials (especially, ZrO2 electrolyte, nickel/ZrO2 cermet anode, LaMnO3 cathode, and LaCrO3 interconnect), gas reactions at the electrodes, stack designs, and processing techniques used in the fabrication of required ceramic structures.
TL;DR: A family of non–precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications, possibly including automotive power.
Abstract: The prohibitive cost of platinum for catalyzing the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has hampered the widespread use of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We describe a family of non-precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications, possibly including automotive power. The approach uses polyaniline as a precursor to a carbon-nitrogen template for high-temperature synthesis of catalysts incorporating iron and cobalt. The most active materials in the group catalyze the ORR at potentials within ~60 millivolts of that delivered by state-of-the-art carbon-supported platinum, combining their high activity with remarkable performance stability for non-precious metal catalysts (700 hours at a fuel cell voltage of 0.4 volts) as well as excellent four-electron selectivity (hydrogen peroxide yield <1.0%).
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