Topic

# Pseudoscalar

About: Pseudoscalar is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4967 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 106530 citation(s). The topic is also known as: pseudo-scalar.

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Abstract: It is pointed out that a global U(1) symmetry, that has been introduced in order to preserve the parity and time-reversal invariance of strong interactions despite the effects of instantons, would lead to a neutral pseudoscalar boson, the "axion," with mass roughly of order 100 keV to 1 MeV. Experimental implications are discussed.

3,357 citations

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Abstract: The requirement that P and T be approximately conserved in the color gauge theory of strong interactions without arbitrary adjustment of parameters is analyzed. Several possibilities are identified, including one which would give a remarkable new kind of very light, long-lived pseudoscalar boson.

3,158 citations

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Abstract: In a previous paper, we have shown how to systematically determine the low-energy structure of the Green functions in QCD. The present article extends this framework to expansions in the mass of the strange quark. We construct the generating functional of U(3)×U(3) which allows us to calculate the Green functions up to and including terms of order p4 (at fixed radio m quark p 2 ) in terms of a few coupling constants which chiral symmetry leaves undetermined. We calculate the first non-leading term in the quark mass expansion of the order parameters 〈0| u u|0〉, 〈0| d d|0〉, 〈0| s s|0〉 , and of the masses and decay constants in the pseudoscalar octet. The three coupling constants which are not fixed by experimental low-energy information are estimated by invoking large-Nc arguments.

2,709 citations

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Abstract: The anomalies of Ward identities are shown to satisfy consistency or integrability relations, which restrict their possible form. For the case of SU(3) × SU(3) we verify that the anomalies given by Bardeen satisfy the consistency relations. A solution of the anomalous Ward identities is also given which describes concisely all anomalous contributions to low energy theorems. The contributions to strong five pseudoscalar interactions, to Kl4, to one- and two-photon interactions with three pseudoscalars are explicity exhibited.

2,323 citations

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Abstract: The system of strongly interacting particles is discussed, with electromagnetism, weak interactions, and gravitation considered as perturbations. The electric current jα, the weak current Jα, and the gravitational tensor θαβ are all well-defined operators, with finite matrix elements obeying dispersion relations. To the extent that the dispersion relations for matrix elements of these operators between the vacuum and other states are highly convergent and dominated by contributions from intermediate one-meson states, we have relations like the Goldberger-Treiman formula and universality principles like that of Sakurai according to which the ρ meson is coupled approximately to the isotopic spin. Homogeneous linear dispersion relations, even without subtractions, do not suffice to fix the scale of these matrix elements; in particular, for the nonconserved currents, the renormalization factors cannot be calculated, and the universality of strength of the weak interactions is undefined. More information than just the dispersion relations must be supplied, for example, by field-theoretic models; we consider, in fact, the equal-time commutation relations of the various parts of j4 and J4. These nonlinear relations define an algebraic system (or a group) that underlies the structure of baryons and mesons. It is suggested that the group is in fact U(3)×U(3), exemplified by the symmetrical Sakata model. The Hamiltonian density θ44 is not completely invariant under the group; the noninvariant part transforms according to a particular representation of the group; it is possible that this information also is given correctly by the symmetrical Sakata model. Various exact relations among form factors follow from the algebraic structure. In addition, it may be worthwhile to consider the approximate situation in which the strangeness-changing vector currents are conserved and the Hamiltonian is invariant under U(3); we refer to this limiting case as "unitary symmetry." In the limit, the baryons and mesons form degenerate supermultiplets, which break up into isotopic multiplets when the symmetry-breaking term in the Hamiltonian is "turned on." The mesons are expected to form unitary singlets and octets; each octet breaks up into a triplet, a singlet, and a pair of strange doublets. The known pseudoscalar and vector mesons fit this pattern if there exists also an isotopic singlet pseudoscalar meson χ0. If we consider unitary symmetry in the abstract rather than in connection with a field theory, then we find, as an attractive alternative to the Sakata model, the scheme of Ne'eman and Gell-Mann, which we call the "eightfold way"; the baryons N, Λ, Σ, and Ξ form an octet, like the vector and pseudoscalar meson octets, in the limit of unitary symmetry. Although the violations of unitary symmetry must be quite large, there is some hope of relating certain violations to others. As an example of the methods advocated, we present a rough calculation of the rate of K+→μ++ν in terms of that of π+→μ++ν.

1,628 citations