About: Pterocarpan is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 320 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 7792 citation(s). The topic is also known as: pterocarpans.
01 Jun 1983-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: The data imply that the antimicrobial activity of glycinol, glyceollin, and coumestrol are due to a general interaction with the bacterial membrane, which is different from that of the other phytoalexins examined.
Abstract: The biochemical basis for the ability of the pterocarpan phytoalexin glycinol (3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan) to inhibit the growth of bacteria was examined. Glycinol at bacteriostatic concentrations ( e.g. 50 micrograms per milliliter) inhibits the ability of Erwinia carotovora to incorporate [ 3 H]leucine, [ 3 H]thymidine, or [ 3 H]uridine into biopolymers. Exposure of Escherichia coli membrane vesicles to glycinol at 20 micrograms per milliliter results in inhibition of respiration-linked transport of [ 14 C]lactose and [ 14 C]glycine into the vesicles when either d-lactate or succinate is supplied as the energy source. The ability of E. coli membrane vesicles to transport [ 14 C]α-methyl glucoside, a vectorial phosphorylation-mediated process, is also inhibited by glycinol at 20 micrograms per milliliter. Furthermore, exposure of membrane vesicles to glycinol (50 micrograms per milliliter) at 20°C results in the leakage of accumulated [ 14 C]α-methyl glucoside-6-phosphate. The effects of the phytoalexins glyceollin, capsidiol, and coumestrol, and daidzein, a compound structurally related to glycinol but without antibiotic activity, upon the E. coli membrane vesicle respiration-linked transport of [ 14 C]glycine and of [ 14 C]α-methyl glucoside was also examined. Glyceollin and coumestrol (50 micrograms per milliliter), but not daidzein, inhibit both membrane-associated transport processes. These data imply that the antimicrobial activity of glycinol, glyceollin, and coumestrol are due to a general interaction with the bacterial membrane. Capsidiol (50 micrograms per milliliter) inhibits d-lactate-dependent transport of [ 14 C]glycine but not vectorial phosphorylation-mediated transport of [ 14 C]α-methyl glucoside. Thus, capsidiol9s mechanism of antimicrobial action seems to differ from that of the other phytoalexins examined.
09 Aug 2002-Life Sciences
TL;DR: Three new isoflavonoids with a pyran ring, gancaonols A[bond]C, were isolated together with 15 known flavonoids and exhibited anti-H.
Abstract: Licorice is the most used crude drug in Kampo medicines (traditional Chinese medicines modified in Japan). The extract of the medicinal plant is also used as the basis of anti-ulcer medicines for treatment of peptic ulcer. Among the chemical constituents of the plant, glabridin and glabrene (components of Glycyrrhiza glabra), licochalcone A (G. inflata), licoricidin and licoisoflavone B (G. uralensis) exhibited inhibitory activity against the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro. These flavonoids also showed anti-H. pylori activity against a clarithromycin (CLAR) and amoxicillin (AMOX)-resistant strain. We also investigated the methanol extract of G. uralensis. From the extract, three new isoflavonoids (3-arylcoumarin, pterocarpan, and isoflavan) with a pyran ring, gancaonols A[bond]C, were isolated together with 15 known flavonoids. Among these compounds, vestitol, licoricone, 1-methoxyphaseollidin and gancaonol C exhibited anti-H. pylori activity against the CLAR and AMOX-resistant strain as well as four CLAR (AMOX)-sensitive strains. Glycyrin, formononetin, isolicoflavonol, glyasperin D, 6,8-diprenylorobol, gancaonin I, dihydrolicoisoflavone A, and gancaonol B possessed weaker anti-H. pylori activity. These compounds may be useful chemopreventive agents for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals.
01 Jan 1984-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that endopolygalacturonic acid lyase elicits phytoalexin accumulation by releasing fragments from pectic polysaccharides in plant cell walls through heat-stable elicitor-active material solubilized from soybean cell walls.
Abstract: Heat-labile elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Wayne) were detected in culture filtrates of Erwinia carotovora grown on a defined medium containing citrus pectin as the sole carbon source. The heat-labile elicitors were highly purified by cation-exchange chromatography on a CM-Sephadex (C-50) column, followed by agarose-affinity chromatography on a Bio-Gel A-0.5m gel filtration column. The heat-labile elicitor activity co-purified with two α-1,4-endopolygalacturonic acid lyases (EC 4·2·2·2). Endopolygalacturonic acid lyase activity appeared to be necessary for elicitor activity because heat-inactivated enzyme preparations did not elicit phytoalexins. The purified endopolygalacturonic acid lyases elicited pterocarpan phytoalexins at microbial-inhibitory concentrations in the soybean-cotyledon bioassay when applied at a concentration of 55 nanograms per milliliter (1 × 10−9 molar). One of these lyases released heat-stable elicitors from soybean cell walls, citrus pectin, and sodium polypectate. The heat-stable elicitor-active material solubilized from soybean cell walls by the lyase was composed of at least 90% (w/v) uronosyl residues. These results demonstrate that endopolygalacturonic acid lyase elicits phytoalexin accumulation by releasing fragments from pectic polysaccharides in plant cell walls.
01 Dec 1991-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: It is reported that PMG wall glucan also induces a rapid and massive accumulation of phenolic polymers in soybean cotyledon cells proximal to the point of elicitor application.
Abstract: Phytophthora megasperma Drechs. f. sp. glycinea Kuan & Erwin (PMG) cell wall glucan has been extensively characterized as an elicitor of the pterocarpan phytoalexins, the glyceollins in soybean (Glycine max L.). Just recently, this glucan was shown to be a potent elicitor of conjugates of the isoflavones, daidzein and genistein as well. Here we report that PMG wall glucan also induces a rapid and massive accumulation of phenolic polymers in soybean cotyledon cells proximal to the point of elicitor application. Deposition of phenolic polymers is over then times that in wounded controls within just 4 hours of elicitor treatment and reaches a maximum by 24 hours. In the same tissues, isoflavone conjugates begin to accumulate at 8 hours and glyceollin at 12 hours. By 24 hours, the total deposition of wall bound phenolics in elicitor-treated tissues is several times greater than the peak glyceollin and isoflavone responses combined. Histochemical stains and quantitation of phenolic residues released after saponification and nitrobenzene or copper oxide oxidation suggest that the covalently linked phenolics include both lignin- and suberin-like polymers as well as simple esterified coumaric and ferulic acid monomers. Accumulations of phenolic polymers are accompanied by equally rapid and massive increases in activity of a specific group of anionic peroxidases. Although increases in peroxidase activity are not strictly limited to cells immediately adjacent to the area of elicitor treatment, the deposition of phenolic polymers is significantly less extensive in distal cells.
01 Feb 2009-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: The first identification of a pterocarpan-specific prenyltransferase provides new insights into plant secondary metabolism and in particular those reactions involved in the disease resistance mechanism of soybean as the penultimate gene of glyceollin biosynthesis.
Abstract: Glyceollins are soybean (Glycine max) phytoalexins possessing pterocarpanoid skeletons with cyclic ether decoration originating from a C5 prenyl moiety. Enzymes involved in glyceollin biosynthesis have been thoroughly characterized during the early era of modern plant biochemistry, and many genes encoding enzymes of isoflavonoid biosynthesis have been cloned, but some genes for later biosynthetic steps are still unidentified. In particular, the prenyltransferase responsible for the addition of the dimethylallyl chain to pterocarpan has drawn a large amount of attention from many researchers due to the crucial coupling process of the polyphenol core and isoprenoid moiety. This study narrowed down the candidate genes to three soybean expressed sequence tag sequences homologous to genes encoding homogentisate phytyltransferase of the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway and identified among them a cDNA encoding dimethylallyl diphosphate: (6aS, 11aS)-3,9,6a-trihydroxypterocarpan [(−)-glycinol] 4-dimethylallyltransferase (G4DT) yielding the direct precursor of glyceollin I. The full-length cDNA encoding a protein led by a plastid targeting signal sequence was isolated from young soybean seedlings, and the catalytic function of the gene product was verified using recombinant yeast microsomes. Expression of the G4DT gene was strongly up-regulated in 5 to 24 h after elicitation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in cultured soybean cells similarly to genes associated with isoflavonoid pathway. The prenyl part of glyceollin I was demonstrated to originate from the methylerythritol pathway by a tracer experiment using [1-13C]Glc and nuclear magnetic resonance measurement, which coincided with the presumed plastid localization of G4DT. The first identification of a pterocarpan-specific prenyltransferase provides new insights into plant secondary metabolism and in particular those reactions involved in the disease resistance mechanism of soybean as the penultimate gene of glyceollin biosynthesis.