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Pulse repetition frequency

About: Pulse repetition frequency is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5054 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 59702 citation(s). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Wolfgang Ackermann1, G. Asova, Valeri Ayvazyan2, A. Azima2  +154 moreInstitutions (16)
01 Jun 2007-Nature Photonics
Abstract: We report results on the performance of a free-electron laser operating at a wavelength of 13.7 nm where unprecedented peak and average powers for a coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation source have been measured. In the saturation regime, the peak energy approached 170 J for individual pulses, and the average energy per pulse reached 70 J. The pulse duration was in the region of 10 fs, and peak powers of 10 GW were achieved. At a pulse repetition frequency of 700 pulses per second, the average extreme-ultraviolet power reached 20 mW. The output beam also contained a significant contribution from odd harmonics of approximately 0.6% and 0.03% for the 3rd (4.6 nm) and the 5th (2.75 nm) harmonics, respectively. At 2.75 nm the 5th harmonic of the radiation reaches deep into the water window, a wavelength range that is crucially important for the investigation of biological samples. more

1,297 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When, in addition to the constant Doppler frequency shift induced by the bulk motion of a radar target, the target or any structure on the target undergoes micro-motion dynamics, such as mechanical vibrations or rotations, the micro-motion dynamics induce Doppler modulations on the returned signal, referred to as the micro-Doppler effect. We introduce the micro-Doppler phenomenon in radar, develop a model of Doppler modulations, derive formulas of micro-Doppler induced by targets with vibration, rotation, tumbling and coning motions, and verify them by simulation studies, analyze time-varying micro-Doppler features using high-resolution time-frequency transforms, and demonstrate the micro-Doppler effect observed in real radar data. more

1,115 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This letter derives an innovative reconstruction algorithm and shows that an unambiguous reconstruction of a SAR signal is possible for nonuniform sampling of the synthetic aperture. more

Abstract: The displaced phase center (DPC) technique will enable a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with high azimuth resolution. In a classic DPC system, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) has to be chosen such that the SAR carrier moves just one half of its antenna length between subsequent radar pulses. Any deviation from this PRF will result in a nonuniform sampling of the synthetic aperture. This letter derives an innovative reconstruction algorithm and shows that an unambiguous reconstruction of a SAR signal is possible for nonuniform sampling of the synthetic aperture. This algorithm will also have great potential for multistatic satellite constellations as well as the dual receive antenna mode in Radarsat 2 and TerraSAR-X. more

429 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
K. Tomiyasu1Institutions (1)
01 May 1978-
Abstract: A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can produce high-resolution two-dimensional images of mapped areas. The SAR comprises a pulsed transmitter, an antenna, and a phase-coherent receiver. The SAR is borne by a constant velocity vehicle such as an aircraft or satellite, with the antenna beam axis oriented obliquely to the velocity vector. The image plane is defined by the velocity vector and antenna beam axis. The image orthogonal coordinates are range and cross range (azimuth). The amplitude and phase of the received signals are collected for the duration of an integration time after which the signal is processed. High range resolution is achieved by the use of wide bandwidth transmitted pulses. High azimuth resolution is achieved by focusing, with a signal processing technique, an extremely long antenna that is synthesized from the coherent phase history. The pulse repetition frequency of the SAR is constrained within bounds established by the geometry and signal ambiguity limits. SAR operation requires relative motion between radar and target. Nominal velocity values are assumed for signal processing and measurable deviations are used for error compensation. Residual uncertainties and high-order derivatives of the velocity which are difficult to compensate may cause image smearing, defocusing, and increased image sidelobes. The SAR transforms the ocean surface into numerous small cells, each with dimensions of range and azimuth resolution. An image of a cell can be produced provided the radar cross section of the cell is sufficiently large and the cell phase history is deterministic. Ocean waves evidently move sufficiently uniformly to produce SAR images which correlate well with optical photographs and visual observations. The relationship between SAR images and oceanic physical features is not completely understood, and more analyses and investigations are desired. more

343 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Baoquan Yao

28 papers, 404 citations

Xiaoming Duan

21 papers, 212 citations

Gerhard Krieger

15 papers, 538 citations

Youlun Ju

10 papers, 112 citations

Alexander A. Lagatsky

9 papers, 393 citations