About: Pyrolysis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 34918 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 833524 citation(s).
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TL;DR: In this article, the pyrolysis characteristics of three main components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass were investigated using, respectively, a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) detector and a pack bed.
Abstract: The pyrolysis characteristics of three main components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass were investigated using, respectively, a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) detector and a pack bed. The releasing of main gas products from biomass pyrolysis in TGA was on-line measured using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In thermal analysis, the pyrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose occurred quickly, with the weight loss of hemicellulose mainly happened at 220–315 °C and that of cellulose at 315–400 °C. However, lignin was more difficult to decompose, as its weight loss happened in a wide temperature range (from 160 to 900 °C) and the generated solid residue was very high (∼40 wt.%). From the viewpoint of energy consumption in the course of pyrolysis, cellulose behaved differently from hemicellulose and lignin; the pyrolysis of the former was endothermic while that of the latter was exothermic. The main gas products from pyrolyzing the three components were similar, including CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and some organics. The releasing behaviors of H 2 and the total gas yield were measured using Micro-GC when pyrolyzing the three components in a packed bed. It was observed that hemicellulose had higher CO 2 yield, cellulose generated higher CO yield, and lignin owned higher H 2 and CH 4 yield. A better understanding to the gas products releasing from biomass pyrolysis could be achieved based on this in-depth investigation on three main biomass components.
01 Mar 2014-Chemosphere
TL;DR: Due to complexity of soil-water system in nature, the effectiveness of biochars on remediation of various organic/inorganic contaminants is still uncertain.
Abstract: Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product synthesized through pyrolysis/carbonization of plant- and animal-based biomass. An increasing interest in the beneficial application of biochar has opened up multidisciplinary areas for science and engineering. The potential biochar applications include carbon sequestration, soil fertility improvement, pollution remediation, and agricultural by-product/waste recycling. The key parameters controlling its properties include pyrolysis temperature, residence time, heat transfer rate, and feedstock type. The efficacy of biochar in contaminant management depends on its surface area, pore size distribution and ion-exchange capacity. Physical architecture and molecular composition of biochar could be critical for practical application to soil and water. Relatively high pyrolysis temperatures generally produce biochars that are effective in the sorption of organic contaminants by increasing surface area, microporosity, and hydrophobicity; whereas the biochars obtained at low temperatures are more suitable for removing inorganic/polar organic contaminants by oxygen-containing functional groups, electrostatic attraction, and precipitation. However, due to complexity of soil-water system in nature, the effectiveness of biochars on remediation of various organic/inorganic contaminants is still uncertain. In this review, a succinct overview of current biochar use as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water is summarized and discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the fate of nitrogen functional forms present in a lignite and its chars, derived from the model compounds acridine, carbazole and polyacrylonitrile (PAN).
Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the fate of nitrogen functional forms present in a lignite and its chars, chars derived from the model compounds acridine, carbazole and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Four different peaks have been found in the XPS patterns, corresponding to at least five different nitrogen functional forms, all being aromatic moieties. The XPS patterns of the synthetic chars were recorded for identification purposes. The distribution of nitrogen functional forms changes with increasing severity of the pyrolysis conditions. Under mild pyrolysis conditions, firstly unstable functionalities like pyridones, protonated pyridinic-N and N-oxides of pyridinic-N are converted to pyridinic-N and secondly pyrrolic-N is converted to pyridinic-N during condensation of the carbon matrix. During the condensation process, nitrogen atoms are incorporated in the graphene layers replacing carbon atoms. After severe pyrolysis all nitrogen is eventually present in 6-membered rings located at the edges of the graphene layers as pyridinic-N or in the interior as quaternary-N. Upon exposure to the ambient, N-oxides of pyridinic-N can be formed. During pyrolysis, differences in nitrogen distribution of the char precursors have diminished. It is presumed that the remaining small differences in the nitrogen distribution of the chars cannot significantly influence the formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion of the chars.
TL;DR: The precise half-life of biochar is still disputed, and this will have important implications for the value of the technology, particularly in carbon trading as mentioned in this paper, and it is not clear under what conditions, and over what period of time, biochar develops its adsorbing properties.
Abstract: At best, common renewable energy strategies can only offset fossil fuel emissions of CO2 – they cannot reverse climate change. One promising approach to lowering CO2 in the atmosphere while producing energy is biochar bio-energy, based on low-temperature pyrolysis. This technology relies on capturing the off-gases from thermal decomposition of wood or grasses to produce heat, electricity, or biofuels. Biochar is a major by-product of this pyrolysis, and has remarkable environmental properties. In soil, biochar was shown to persist longer and to retain cations better than other forms of soil organic matter. The precise half-life of biochar is still disputed, however, and this will have important implications for the value of the technology, particularly in carbon trading. Furthermore, the cation retention of fresh biochar is relatively low compared to aged biochar in soil, and it is not clear under what conditions, and over what period of time, biochar develops its adsorbing properties. Research is still n...
TL;DR: The conversion technologies for utilizing biomass can be separated into four basic categories: direct combustion processes, thermochemical processes, biochemical processes and agrochemical processes as discussed by the authors, which can be subdivided into gasification, pyrolysis, supercritical fluid extraction and direct liquefaction.
Abstract: Biomass resources include wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The conversion technologies for utilizing biomass can be separated into four basic categories: direct combustion processes, thermochemical processes, biochemical processes and agrochemical processes. Thermochemical conversion processes can be subdivided into gasification, pyrolysis, supercritical fluid extraction and direct liquefaction. Pyrolysis is the thermochemical process that converts biomass into liquid, charcoal and non-condensable gases, acetic acid, acetone and methanol by heating the biomass to about 750 K in the absence of air. If the purpose is to maximize the yield of liquid products resulting from biomass pyrolysis, a low temperature, high heating rate, short gas residence time process would be required. For high char production, a low temperature, low heating rate process would be chosen. If the purpose is to maximize the yield of fuel gas resulting from pyrolysis, a high temperature, low heating rate, long gas residence time process would be preferred.
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