Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
About: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6456 publications have been published within this topic receiving 247198 citations. The topic is also known as: GO:0045254 & pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (lipoamide).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A hypoxia-induced metabolic switch that shunts glucose metabolites from the mitochondria to glycolysis to maintain ATP production and to prevent toxic ROS production is revealed.
Abstract: Activation of glycolytic genes by HIF-1 is considered critical for metabolic adaptation to hypoxia through increased conversion of glucose to pyruvate and subsequently to lactate. We found that HIF-1 also actively suppresses metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) by directly trans-activating the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). PDK1 inactivates the TCA cycle enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Forced PDK1 expression in hypoxic HIF-1alpha null cells increases ATP levels, attenuates hypoxic ROS generation, and rescues these cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. These studies reveal a hypoxia-induced metabolic switch that shunts glucose metabolites from the mitochondria to glycolysis to maintain ATP production and to prevent toxic ROS production.
TL;DR: It is shown by genetic means that HIF-1-dependent block to oxygen utilization results in increased oxygen availability, decreased cell death when total oxygen is limiting, and reduced cell death in response to the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine.
Abstract: The HIF-1 transcription factor drives hypoxic gene expression changes that are thought to be adaptive for cells exposed to a reduced-oxygen environment. For example, HIF-1 induces the expression of glycolytic genes. It is presumed that increased glycolysis is necessary to produce energy when low oxygen will not support oxidative phosphorylation at the mitochondria. However, we find that while HIF-1 stimulates glycolysis, it also actively represses mitochondrial function and oxygen consumption by inducing pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). PDK1 phosphorylates and inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase from using pyruvate to fuel the mitochondrial TCA cycle. This causes a drop in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and results in a relative increase in intracellular oxygen tension. We show by genetic means that HIF-1-dependent block to oxygen utilization results in increased oxygen availability, decreased cell death when total oxygen is limiting, and reduced cell death in response to the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine.
TL;DR: In yeast, pyruvate is located at a major junction of assimilatory and dissimilatory reactions as well as at the branch-point between respiratory dissimilation of sugars and alcoholic fermentation as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In yeasts, pyruvate is located at a major junction of assimilatory and dissimilatory reactions as well as at the branch-point between respiratory dissimilation of sugars and alcoholic fermentation This review deals with the enzymology, physiological function and regulation of three key reactions occurring at the pyruvate branch-point in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: (i) the direct oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, catalysed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, (ii) decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde, catalysed by pyruvate decarboxylase, and (iii) the anaplerotic carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase Special attention is devoted to physiological studies on S cerevisiae strains in which structural genes encoding these key enzymes have been inactivated by gene disruption
TL;DR: The data suggest that the antianginal effects of trimetazidine may occur because of an inhibition of long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase activity, which results in a reduction in fatty acid oxidation and a stimulation of glucose oxidation.
Abstract: Trimetazidine is a clinically effective antianginal agent that has no negative inotropic or vasodilator properties. Although it is thought to have direct cytoprotective actions on the myocardium, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is as yet undefined. In this study, we determined what effects trimetazidine has on both fatty acid and glucose metabolism in isolated working rat hearts and on the activities of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 100 microU/mL insulin, 3% albumin, 5 mmol/L glucose, and fatty acids of different chain lengths. Both glucose and fatty acids were appropriately radiolabeled with either (3)H or (14)C for measurement of glycolysis, glucose oxidation, and fatty acid oxidation. Trimetazidine had no effect on myocardial oxygen consumption or cardiac work under any aerobic perfusion condition used. In hearts perfused with 5 mmol/L glucose and 0.4 mmol/L palmitate, trimetazidine decreased the rate of palmitate oxidation from 488+/-24 to 408+/-15 nmol x g dry weight(-1) x minute(-1) (P<0.05), whereas it increased rates of glucose oxidation from 1889+/-119 to 2378+/-166 nmol x g dry weight(-1) x minute(-1) (P<0.05). In hearts subjected to low-flow ischemia, trimetazidine resulted in a 210% increase in glucose oxidation rates. In both aerobic and ischemic hearts, glycolytic rates were unaltered by trimetazidine. The effects of trimetazidine on glucose oxidation were accompanied by a 37% increase in the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation. No effect of trimetazidine was observed on glycolysis, glucose oxidation, fatty acid oxidation, or active pyruvate dehydrogenase when palmitate was substituted with 0.8 mmol/L octanoate or 1.6 mmol/L butyrate, suggesting that trimetazidine directly inhibits long-chain fatty acid oxidation. This reduction in fatty acid oxidation was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activity of the long-chain isoform of the last enzyme involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A (CoA) thiolase activity (IC(50) of 75 nmol/L). In contrast, concentrations of trimetazidine in excess of 10 and 100 micromol/L were needed to inhibit the medium- and short-chain forms of 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase, respectively. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and stimulation of glucose oxidation can protect the ischemic heart. Therefore, our data suggest that the antianginal effects of trimetazidine may occur because of an inhibition of long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase activity, which results in a reduction in fatty acid oxidation and a stimulation of glucose oxidation.
TL;DR: Systematic profiling of the mammalian succinylome reveals widespread roles for lysine succinylation in regulating metabolism and potentially other cellular functions, and identifies two protein complexes identified in the analysis.
Abstract: Protein function is regulated by diverse posttranslational modifications. The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 removes malonyl and succinyl moieties from target lysines. The spectrum of protein substrates subject to these modifications is unknown. We report systematic profiling of the mammalian succinylome, identifying 2,565 succinylation sites on 779 proteins. Most of these do not overlap with acetylation sites, suggesting differential regulation of succinylation and acetylation. Our analysis reveals potential impacts of lysine succinylation on enzymes involved in mitochondrial metabolism; e.g., amino acid degradation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, and fatty acid metabolism. Lysine succinylation is also present on cytosolic and nuclear proteins; indeed, we show that a substantial fraction of SIRT5 is extramitochondrial. SIRT5 represses biochemical activity of, and cellular respiration through, two protein complexes identified in our analysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and succinate dehydrogenase. Our data reveal widespread roles for lysine succinylation in regulating metabolism and potentially other cellular functions.
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