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# Q factor

About: Q factor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8387 publications have been published within this topic receiving 163135 citations. The topic is also known as: Q factor.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental setup has been constructed for simultaneous measurements of the frequency, the absolute Q factor, and the amplitude of oscillation of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).

Abstract: An experimental setup has been constructed for simultaneous measurements of the frequency, the absolute Q factor, and the amplitude of oscillation of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The technical solution allows operation in vacuum, air, or liquid. The crystal is driven at its resonant frequency by an oscillator that can be intermittently disconnected causing the crystal oscillation amplitude to decay exponentially. From the recorded decay curve the absolute Q factor (calculated from the decay time constant), the frequency of the freely oscillating crystal, and the amplitude of oscillation are obtained. All measurements are fully automated. One electrode of the QCM in our setup was connected to true ground which makes possible simultaneous electrochemistry. The performance is illustrated by experiments in fluids of varying viscosity (gas and liquid) and by proteinadsorptionin situ. We found, in addition to the above results, that the amplitude of oscillation is not always directly proportional to the Q factor, as the commonly used theory states. This puts limitations on the customary use of the amplitude of oscillation as a measure of the Q factor.

1,172 citations

01 Jan 2010

TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental setup has been constructed for simultaneous measurements of the frequency, the absolute Q factor, and the amplitude of oscillation of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM).

Abstract: An experimental setup has been constructed for simultaneous measurements of the frequency, the absolute Q factor, and the amplitude of oscillation of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The technical solution allows operation in vacuum, air, or liquid. The crystal is driven at its resonant frequency by an oscillator that can be intermittently disconnected causing the crystal oscillation amplitude to decay exponentially. From the recorded decay curve the absolute Q factor (calculated from the decay time constant), the frequency of the freely oscillating crystal, and the amplitude of oscillation are obtained. AI1 measurements are fully automated. One electrode of the QCM in our setup was connected to true ground which makes possible simultaneous electrochemistry. The performance is illustrated by experiments in fluids of varying viscosity (gas and liquid) and by protein adsorption in situ. We found, in addition to the above results, that the amplitude of oscillation is not always directly proportional to the Q factor, as the commonly used theory states. This puts limitations on the customary use of the amplitude of oscillation as a measure of the Q factor. 8 1995 American Institute of Physics.

1,021 citations

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TL;DR: It is demonstrated that quality factor Q - (0.8 +/- 0.1) x 10(10) of whispering-gallery modes in fused-silica microspheres at 633 nm, close to the ultimate level determined by fundamental material attenuation as measured in optical fibers, is demonstrated.

Abstract: We demonstrate the quality factor Q - (0.8 +/- 0.1) x 10(10) of whispering-gallery modes in fused-silica microspheres at 633 nm, close to the ultimate level determined by fundamental material attenuation as measured in optical fibers. The lifetime of ultimate Q is limited by adsorption of atmospheric water. Monitoring of adsorption kinetics with submonolayer sensitivity by Q factors and frequencies of whispering-gallery modes is demonstrated. The possibility of supermaterial Q's owing to intrinsic suppression of scattering losses in micropheres is discussed.

986 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, exact and approximate expressions for the bandwidth and Q of a general single-feed (one-port) lossy or lossless linear antenna tuned to resonance or antiresonance were derived.

Abstract: To address the need for fundamental universally valid definitions of exact bandwidth and quality factor (Q) of tuned antennas, as well as the need for efficient accurate approximate formulas for computing this bandwidth and Q, exact and approximate expressions are found for the bandwidth and Q of a general single-feed (one-port) lossy or lossless linear antenna tuned to resonance or antiresonance. The approximate expression derived for the exact bandwidth of a tuned antenna differs from previous approximate expressions in that it is inversely proportional to the magnitude |Z'/sub 0/(/spl omega//sub 0/)| of the frequency derivative of the input impedance and, for not too large a bandwidth, it is nearly equal to the exact bandwidth of the tuned antenna at every frequency /spl omega//sub 0/, that is, throughout antiresonant as well as resonant frequency bands. It is also shown that an appropriately defined exact Q of a tuned lossy or lossless antenna is approximately proportional to |Z'/sub 0/(/spl omega//sub 0/)| and thus this Q is approximately inversely proportional to the bandwidth (for not too large a bandwidth) of a simply tuned antenna at all frequencies. The exact Q of a tuned antenna is defined in terms of average internal energies that emerge naturally from Maxwell's equations applied to the tuned antenna. These internal energies, which are similar but not identical to previously defined quality-factor energies, and the associated Q are proven to increase without bound as the size of an antenna is decreased. Numerical solutions to thin straight-wire and wire-loop lossy and lossless antennas, as well as to a Yagi antenna and a straight-wire antenna embedded in a lossy dispersive dielectric, confirm the accuracy of the approximate expressions and the inverse relationship between the defined bandwidth and the defined Q over frequency ranges that cover several resonant and antiresonant frequency bands.

831 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the design of miniature generators capable of converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for use in powering intelligent sensor systems is described and experimental results are described and test results presented.

Abstract: This paper describes the design of miniature generators capable of converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for use in powering intelligent sensor systems. Such a device acts as the power supply of a microsystem which can be used in inaccessible areas where wires can not be practically attached to provide power or transmit sensor data. Two prototypes of miniature generator are described and experimental results presented. Prototype A is based around two magnets coupled to a coil attached to a cantilever; prototype B is based around four magnets. For prototype A, experimental results are given for its resonant frequency and its open circuit and loaded output as a function of vibration amplitude. For prototype B, experimental results are given for the generator's Q factor in air and vacuum, its output voltage as a function of vibration amplitude as well as its magnetic field strength. This generator has been tested on a car engine and shown to produce a peak power of 3.9 mW with an average power of 157 micro watts.

800 citations