About: Quality management is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 28260 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 484862 citation(s).
26 Sep 1966-Milbank Quarterly
Abstract: This p aper i s a n a ttempt t o d escribe a nd evaluate current methods for assessing the quality of medical care and to suggest some directions for further study. It is concerned with methods rather than findings, and with an evaluation of methodology in general, rather than a detailed critique of methods in specific studies. This is not an exhaustive review of the pertinent literature. Certain key studies, of course, have been included. Other papers have been selected only as illustrative examples. Those omitted are not, for that reason, less worthy of note. This paper deals almost exclusively with the evaluation of the medical care process at the level of physician-patient interaction. It excludes, therefore, processes primarily related to the effective delivery of medical care at the community level. Moreover, this paper is not concerned with the administrative aspects of quality control. Many of the studies reviewed here have arisen out of the urgent need to evaluate and control the quality of care in organized programs of medical care. Nevertheless, these studies will be discussed only in terms of their contribution to methods of assessment and not in terms of their broader social goals. The author has remained, by and large, in the familiar territory of care provided by physicians and has avoided incursions into other types of
01 Jan 2014-
Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Operating since 1947, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a nongovernmental association consisting of representatives from over 150 countries, one member per country. The increased credibility associated with ISO certification leads to many advantages that include decreased operating expenses stemming from scrap and rework, and enhanced management control through management review participation. The chapter describes the ISO standards most relevant in a clinical laboratory service setting. The quality standards in the ISO 9000 family focus on quality management and include quality-management system (QMS) requirements that are general for the manufacturing and service industries. The ISO 9001 standard requires extensive interpretation, while ISO 15189 is an international standard specifically developed for medical laboratories, although it may be of relevance to such disciplines as clinical physiology and medical imaging. The chapter describes the process for obtaining and maintaining ISO certification. ISO certification can be an attractive credential for a clinical laboratory. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) continues to play a role in the development of the ISO 15189 standard and, since 2008, has been a certifying body for this standard. The certification process is followed by ongoing maintenance of the QMS by the laboratory, as well as surveillance audits performed by the certifying body.
01 Dec 1989-Decision Sciences
Abstract: Much has been written about how quality should be managed in an organization. The quality literature contains many case studies of successful companies and descriptions of quality concepts and quality improvement programs. To date, however, there has been no systematic attempt to organize and synthesize the various prescriptions offered, nor have measures of organizational quality management been proposed for areas such as top management leadership, training, employee involvement, and supplier management. While many organizations collect quality data such as defect rates, error rates, rework cost, and scrap cost, these are not measures of organization-wide quality management. This paper provides a synthesis of the quality literature by identifying eight critical factors (areas) of quality management in a business unit. Operational measures of these factors are developed using data collected from 162 general managers and quality managers of 89 divisions of 20 companies. The measures can be used individually or in concert to produce a profile of organization-wide quality practices. The measures are found to be both valid and reliable. Such measures could be used by decision makers in an organization to assess the status of quality management in order to direct improvements in the quality area. Researchers can use such measures to better understand quality management practice and to build theories and models that relate the critical factors of quality management to the organization's quality environment and quality performance.
01 Mar 1994-Journal of Operations Management
TL;DR: An emergent theory of quality management is proposed and links it to the literature, and a set of reliable and valid scales was developed that may be used by other researchers for hypothesis testing and by practitioners for assessing quality management practices in their plants and for internal and external benchmarking.
Abstract: Research on quality incorporates a range of concerns, including quality definition and management, and such specific mechanisms as statistical quality control (SQC). However, though research in statistical quality control has evolved in a scientific and rigorous fashion, based on the early works of Shewhart, Juran, Deming and others, the study of other aspects of quality, particularly quality management, has not evolved in a similarly rigorous fashion. Theory development and measurement issues related to reliability and validity are particularly weak in the quality management literature. Starting from a strategic perspective of the organization, this paper identifies and substantiates the key dimensions of quality management, then tests the measurement of those dimensions for reliability and validity. In doing so, it establishes a clear framework for subsequent research and for evaluation of quality management programs by practitioners. In order to specify the important dimensions of quality management, a thorough search of the relevant literature was undertaken. Quality management is defined as an approach to achieving and sustaining high quality output; thus, we employ a process definition, emphasizing inputs (management practices) rather than outputs (quality performance) in our analysis. Quality management is first viewed as an element of the integrated approach known as World Class Manufacturing; quality management supports and is supported by JIT, human resources management, top management support, technology management and strategic management. The key dimensions of quality management are then articulated. Top management support creates an environment in which quality management activities are rewarded. These activities are related to quality information systems, process management, product design, work force management, supplier involvement and customer involvement. They are used in concert to support the continuous improvement of manufacturing capability. As manufacturing capability and quality performance improve, a plant achieves and sustains a competitive advantage. This, in turn, provides feedback, reinforcement and resources to top management, which stimulates continuous improvement. Based on the seven dimensions of quality management identified in this paper, a set of 14 perceptual scales was developed. The scales were assessed for reliability and validity with a sample of 716 respondents at 42 plants in the U.S. in the transportation components, electronics and machinery industries. Reliability is broadly defined as the degree to which scales are free from error and, therefore, consistent. The use of reliable scales provides assurance that the obtained results will be stable. Application of Cronbach's alpha both across the board and by industry and nationality subsamples refined the original group of 14 scales to 11 internally consistent scales. Validity refers to the degree to which scales truly measure the constructs which they are intended to measure. This provides academic and industry users with confidence that the scales measure important constructs which are related to independent measures of the same constructs, and that each scale measures a single construct. It was concluded that the scales, and the instrument as a whole, are valid measures of quality management practices. Thus, the scales may be used with confidence by both researchers and industry users to measure quality management practices, with the ability to generalize beyond the immediate sample. This paper makes several important contributions to the area of quality management. It proposes an emergent theory of quality management and links it to the literature. Because the proposed scales are reliable and valid, they may be used by other researchers for hypothesis testing and by practitioners for assessing quality management practices in their plants and for internal and external benchmarking. Finally, the paper provides a step-by-step approach and criteria for conducting reliability and validity analysis of a measurement instrument.
01 Jul 2003-
Abstract: The Institute of Medicine study Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001) recommended that an interdisciplinary summit be held to further reform of health professions education in order to enhance quality and patient safety. Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality is the follow up to that summit, held in June 2002, where 150 participants across disciplines and occupations developed ideas about how to integrate a core set of competencies into health professions education. These core competencies include patient-centered care, interdisciplinary teams, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics. This book recommends a mix of approaches to health education improvement, including those related to oversight processes, the training environment, research, public reporting, and leadership. Educators, administrators, and health professionals can use this book to help achieve an approach to education that better prepares clinicians to meet both the needs of patients and the requirements of a changing health care system.