Topic

# Quantum

About: Quantum is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 60044 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1233923 citations.

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01 Dec 2010

TL;DR: This chapter discusses quantum information theory, public-key cryptography and the RSA cryptosystem, and the proof of Lieb's theorem.

Abstract: Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics 3. Introduction to computer science Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application 6. Quantum search algorithms 7. Quantum computers: physical realization Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations 9. Distance measures for quantum information 10. Quantum error-correction 11. Entropy and information 12. Quantum information theory Appendices References Index.

14,825 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived necessary conditions for any finite number of quanta and associated quantization intervals of an optimum finite quantization scheme to achieve minimum average quantization noise power.

Abstract: It has long been realized that in pulse-code modulation (PCM), with a given ensemble of signals to handle, the quantum values should be spaced more closely in the voltage regions where the signal amplitude is more likely to fall. It has been shown by Panter and Dite that, in the limit as the number of quanta becomes infinite, the asymptotic fractional density of quanta per unit voltage should vary as the one-third power of the probability density per unit voltage of signal amplitudes. In this paper the corresponding result for any finite number of quanta is derived; that is, necessary conditions are found that the quanta and associated quantization intervals of an optimum finite quantization scheme must satisfy. The optimization criterion used is that the average quantization noise power be a minimum. It is shown that the result obtained here goes over into the Panter and Dite result as the number of quanta become large. The optimum quautization schemes for 2^{b} quanta, b=1,2, \cdots, 7 , are given numerically for Gaussian and for Laplacian distribution of signal amplitudes.

11,872 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, a simple model for spin diffusion or conduction in the "impurity band" is presented, which involves transport in a lattice which is in some sense random, and in them diffusion is expected to take place via quantum jumps between localized sites.

Abstract: This paper presents a simple model for such processes as spin diffusion or conduction in the "impurity band." These processes involve transport in a lattice which is in some sense random, and in them diffusion is expected to take place via quantum jumps between localized sites. In this simple model the essential randomness is introduced by requiring the energy to vary randomly from site to site. It is shown that at low enough densities no diffusion at all can take place, and the criteria for transport to occur are given.

9,647 citations

Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: The corresponding result for any finite number of quanta is derived; that is, necessary conditions are found that the quanta and associated quantization intervals of an optimum finite quantization scheme must satisfy.

Abstract: It has long been realized that in pulse-code modulation (PCM), with a given ensemble of signals to handle, the quantum values should be spaced more closely in the voltage regions where the signal amplitude is more likely to fall. It has been shown by Panter and Dite that, in the limit as the number of quanta becomes infinite, the asymptotic fractional density of quanta per unit voltage should vary as the one-third power of the probability density per unit voltage of signal amplitudes. In this paper the corresponding result for any finite number of quanta is derived; that is, necessary conditions are found that the quanta and associated quantization intervals of an optimum finite quantization scheme must satisfy. The optimization criterion used is that the average quantization noise power be a minimum. It is shown that the result obtained here goes over into the Panter and Dite result as the number of quanta become large. The optimum quautization schemes for 2^{b} quanta, b=1,2, \cdots, 7 , are given numerically for Gaussian and for Laplacian distribution of signal amplitudes.

9,602 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the opacity of suspended graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, a = e2/hc � 1/137 (where c is the speed of light), the parameter that describes coupling between light and relativistic electrons and that is traditionally associated with quantum electrodynamics rather than materials science.

Abstract: There are few phenomena in condensed matter physics that are defined only by the fundamental constants and do not depend on material parameters. Examples are the resistivity quantum, h/e2 (h is Planck's constant and e the electron charge), that appears in a variety of transport experiments and the magnetic flux quantum, h/e, playing an important role in the physics of superconductivity. By and large, sophisticated facilities and special measurement conditions are required to observe any of these phenomena. We show that the opacity of suspended graphene is defined solely by the fine structure constant, a = e2/hc feminine 1/137 (where c is the speed of light), the parameter that describes coupling between light and relativistic electrons and that is traditionally associated with quantum electrodynamics rather than materials science. Despite being only one atom thick, graphene is found to absorb a significant (pa = 2.3%) fraction of incident white light, a consequence of graphene's unique electronic structure.

7,952 citations