Topic

# Quantum circuit

About: Quantum circuit is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4298 publications have been published within this topic receiving 118262 citations. The topic is also known as: quantum logic cirquit.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a universal set of one-and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation using the spin states of coupled single-electron quantum dots is proposed, and the desired operations are effected by the gating of the tunneling barrier between neighboring dots.

Abstract: We propose an implementation of a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation using the spin states of coupled single-electron quantum dots. Desired operations are effected by the gating of the tunneling barrier between neighboring dots. Several measures of the gate quality are computed within a recently derived spin master equation incorporating decoherence caused by a prototypical magnetic environment. Dot-array experiments that would provide an initial demonstration of the desired nonequilibrium spin dynamics are proposed.

5,801 citations

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TL;DR: U(2) gates are derived, which derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two- and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for n-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number of unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits.

Abstract: We show that a set of gates that consists of all one-bit quantum gates (U(2)) and the two-bit exclusive-or gate (that maps Boolean values (x,y) to (x,x ⊕y)) is universal in the sense that all unitary operations on arbitrarily many bits n (U(2 n )) can be expressed as compositions of these gates. We investigate the number of the above gates required to implement other gates, such as generalized Deutsch-Toffoli gates, that apply a specific U(2) transformation to one input bit if and only if the logical AND of all remaining input bits is satisfied. These gates play a central role in many proposed constructions of quantum computational networks. We derive upper and lower bounds on the exact number of elementary gates required to build up a variety of two- and three-bit quantum gates, the asymptotic number required for n-bit Deutsch-Toffoli gates, and make some observations about the number required for arbitrary n-bit unitary operations.

3,731 citations

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^{1}, University of Massachusetts Amherst^{2}, Ames Research Center^{3}, California Institute of Technology^{4}, University of California, Santa Barbara^{5}, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg^{6}, Oak Ridge National Laboratory^{7}, University of California, Riverside^{8}, Forschungszentrum Jülich^{9}, RWTH Aachen University^{10}, University of Michigan^{11}, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign^{12}TL;DR: Quantum supremacy is demonstrated using a programmable superconducting processor known as Sycamore, taking approximately 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times, which would take a state-of-the-art supercomputer around ten thousand years to compute.

Abstract: The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor1. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor with programmable superconducting qubits2-7 to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 253 (about 1016). Measurements from repeated experiments sample the resulting probability distribution, which we verify using classical simulations. Our Sycamore processor takes about 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times-our benchmarks currently indicate that the equivalent task for a state-of-the-art classical supercomputer would take approximately 10,000 years. This dramatic increase in speed compared to all known classical algorithms is an experimental realization of quantum supremacy8-14 for this specific computational task, heralding a much-anticipated computing paradigm.

2,527 citations

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TL;DR: A quantum algorithm that produces approximate solutions for combinatorial optimization problems that depends on a positive integer p and the quality of the approximation improves as p is increased, and is studied as applied to MaxCut on regular graphs.

Abstract: We introduce a quantum algorithm that produces approximate solutions for combinatorial optimization problems. The algorithm depends on a positive integer p and the quality of the approximation improves as p is increased. The quantum circuit that implements the algorithm consists of unitary gates whose locality is at most the locality of the objective function whose optimum is sought. The depth of the circuit grows linearly with p times (at worst) the number of constraints. If p is fixed, that is, independent of the input size, the algorithm makes use of efficient classical preprocessing. If p grows with the input size a different strategy is proposed. We study the algorithm as applied to MaxCut on regular graphs and analyze its performance on 2-regular and 3-regular graphs for fixed p. For p = 1, on 3-regular graphs the quantum algorithm always finds a cut that is at least 0.6924 times the size of the optimal cut.

1,852 citations

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TL;DR: The operation of a two-bit "controlled-NOT" quantum logic gate is demonstrated, which, in conjunction with simple single-bit operations, forms a universal quantum logic Gate for quantum computation.

Abstract: We demonstrate the operation of a two-bit "controlled-NOT" quantum logic gate, which, in conjunction with simple single-bit operations, forms a universal quantum logic gate for quantum computation. The two quantum bits are stored in the internal and external degrees of freedom of a single trapped atom, which is first laser cooled to the zero-point energy. Decoherence effects are identified for the operation, and the possibility of extending the system to more qubits appears promising.

1,377 citations