Topic

# Quantum information science

About: Quantum information science is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10490 publications have been published within this topic receiving 396972 citations. The topic is also known as: quantum information theory & quantum informatics.

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01 Jan 2000

TL;DR: In this article, the quantum Fourier transform and its application in quantum information theory is discussed, and distance measures for quantum information are defined. And quantum error-correction and entropy and information are discussed.

Abstract: Part I Fundamental Concepts: 1 Introduction and overview 2 Introduction to quantum mechanics 3 Introduction to computer science Part II Quantum Computation: 4 Quantum circuits 5 The quantum Fourier transform and its application 6 Quantum search algorithms 7 Quantum computers: physical realization Part III Quantum Information: 8 Quantum noise and quantum operations 9 Distance measures for quantum information 10 Quantum error-correction 11 Entropy and information 12 Quantum information theory Appendices References Index

25,929 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments.

Abstract: Coherent preparation by laser light of quantum states of atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the amplitudes of optical transitions. In this way the optical properties of a medium can be dramatically modified, leading to electromagnetically induced transparency and related effects, which have placed gas-phase systems at the center of recent advances in the development of media with radically new optical properties. This article reviews these advances and the new possibilities they offer for nonlinear optics and quantum information science. As a basis for the theory of electromagnetically induced transparency the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser. They then discuss pulse propagation and the adiabatic evolution of field-coupled states and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments. The extension of these concepts to very weak optical fields in the few-photon limit is then examined. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects and potential new applications.

4,218 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and the concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter.

Abstract: The interaction of matter and light is one of the fundamental processes occurring in nature, and its most elementary form is realized when a single atom interacts with a single photon. Reaching this regime has been a major focus of research in atomic physics and quantum optics1 for several decades and has generated the field of cavity quantum electrodynamics2,3. Here we perform an experiment in which a superconducting two-level system, playing the role of an artificial atom, is coupled to an on-chip cavity consisting of a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and we experimentally observe the coherent interaction of a superconducting two-level system with a single microwave photon. The concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter. This system can also be exploited for quantum information processing and quantum communication and may lead to new approaches for single photon generation and detection.

3,452 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.

Abstract: Quantum communication holds promise for absolutely secure transmission of secret messages and the faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photonic channels appear to be very attractive for the physical implementation of quantum communication. However, owing to losses and decoherence in the channel, the communication fidelity decreases exponentially with the channel length. Here we describe a scheme that allows the implementation of robust quantum communication over long lossy channels. The scheme involves laser manipulation of atomic ensembles, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors with moderate efficiencies, and is therefore compatible with current experimental technology. We show that the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel length, and hence the scheme should be operable over very long distances.

3,126 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In information processing, as in physics, the classical world view provides an incomplete approximation to an underlying quantum reality that can be harnessed to break codes, create unbreakable codes, and speed up otherwise intractable computations.

Abstract: In information processing, as in physics, our classical world view provides an incomplete approximation to an underlying quantum reality. Quantum effects like interference and entanglement play no direct role in conventional information processing, but they can--in principle now, but probably eventually in practice--be harnessed to break codes, create unbreakable codes, and speed up otherwise intractable computations.

3,080 citations