Topic

# Quantum phase transition

About: Quantum phase transition is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16381 publications have been published within this topic receiving 453115 citations. The topic is also known as: QPT.

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TL;DR: In this article, a new definition of order called topological order is proposed for two-dimensional systems in which no long-range order of the conventional type exists, and the possibility of a phase transition characterized by a change in the response of the system to an external perturbation is discussed in the context of a mean field type of approximation.

Abstract: A new definition of order called topological order is proposed for two-dimensional systems in which no long-range order of the conventional type exists. The possibility of a phase transition characterized by a change in the response of the system to an external perturbation is discussed in the context of a mean field type of approximation. The critical behaviour found in this model displays very weak singularities. The application of these ideas to the xy model of magnetism, the solid-liquid transition, and the neutral superfluid are discussed. This type of phase transition cannot occur in a superconductor nor in a Heisenberg ferromagnet.

5,691 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect can be realized in mercury-cadmium telluride semiconductor quantum wells, a state of matter with topological properties distinct from those of conventional insulators.

Abstract: We show that the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a state of matter with topological properties distinct from those of conventional insulators, can be realized in mercury telluride–cadmium telluride semiconductor quantum wells. When the thickness of the quantum well is varied, the electronic state changes from a normal to an “inverted” type at a critical thickness d c . We show that this transition is a topological quantum phase transition between a conventional insulating phase and a phase exhibiting the QSH effect with a single pair of helical edge states. We also discuss methods for experimental detection of the QSH effect.

4,495 citations

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TL;DR: This work observes a quantum phase transition in a Bose–Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential, and can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.

Abstract: For a system at a temperature of absolute zero, all thermal fluctuations are frozen out, while quantum fluctuations prevail. These microscopic quantum fluctuations can induce a macroscopic phase transition in the ground state of a many-body system when the relative strength of two competing energy terms is varied across a critical value. Here we observe such a quantum phase transition in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interactions, held in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential. As the potential depth of the lattice is increased, a transition is observed from a superfluid to a Mott insulator phase. In the superfluid phase, each atom is spread out over the entire lattice, with long-range phase coherence. But in the insulating phase, exact numbers of atoms are localized at individual lattice sites, with no phase coherence across the lattice; this phase is characterized by a gap in the excitation spectrum. We can induce reversible changes between the two ground states of the system.

4,124 citations

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Yale University

^{1}TL;DR: The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today.

3,715 citations

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TL;DR: The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d = 6.3 nanometers, was independently determined from the magnetic field–induced insulator-to-metal transition, providing experimental evidence of the quantum spin Hall effect.

Abstract: Recent theory predicted that the quantum spin Hall effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter that exists at zero external magnetic field, may be realized in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We fabricated such sample structures with low density and high mobility in which we could tune, through an external gate voltage, the carrier conduction from n-type to p-type, passing through an insulating regime. For thin quantum wells with well width d 6.3 nanometers), the nominally insulating regime showed a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e(2)/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant. The residual conductance was independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance was destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d = 6.3 nanometers, was also independently determined from the magnetic field-induced insulator-to-metal transition. These observations provide experimental evidence of the quantum spin Hall effect.

3,684 citations