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Quenching

About: Quenching is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 22899 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 224316 citation(s).
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01 Jan 1981-
Abstract: Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams Equilibrium Single-Component Systems Binary Solutions Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems Binary Phase Diagrams Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium Ternary Equilibrium Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions Computation of Phase Diagrams Kinetics of Phase Transformations Exercises References Further Readings Diffusion Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusion Interstitial Diffusion Substitutional Diffusion Atomic Mobility Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloys Diffusion in Ternary Alloys High-Diffusivity Paths Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systems Exercises References Further Readings Crystal Interfaces and Microstructure Interfacial Free Energy Solid=Vapor Interfaces Boundaries in Single-Phase Solids Interphase Interfaces in Solids Interface Migration Exercises References Further Readings Solidification Nucleation in Pure Metals Growth of a Pure Solid Alloy Solidification Solidification of Ingots and Castings Solidification of Fusion Welds Solidification during Quenching from the Melt Metallic Glasses Case Studies of Some Practical Castings and Welds Exercises References Further Readings Diffusional Transformations in Solids Homogeneous Nucleation in Solids Heterogeneous Nucleation Precipitate Growth5 Overall Transformation Kinetics-TTT Diagrams Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloys Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenite Cellular Precipitation Eutectoid Transformations Massive Transformations Ordering Transformations Case Studies Exercises References Further Readings Diffusionless Transformations Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformations Martensite Crystallography Theories of Martensite Nucleation Martensite Growth1 Premartensite Phenomena Tempering of Ferrous Martensites Case Studies Exercises References Further Readings Solutions to Exercises Compiled by John C. Ion

4,009 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
09 Oct 1973-Biochemistry
Abstract: Quenching of the fluorescence of various fluorophores by molecular oxygen has been studied in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions equilibrated with oxygen pressures up to 100 atm. Temperature dependence of quenching, agreement with the Stern–Volmer equation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements indicate that essentially all the observed quenching is dynamic and close to the diffusion-controlled limits. Studies of charged polyamino acids containing tryptophan show that oxygen quenching, in contrast to I−, is completely insensitive to charge effects. Ethidium bromide, when intercalated into double helical DNA, is quenched with 1/30th of the efficiency of the free dye in solution. Three dyes bound to bovine serum albumin were also found to be relatively protected from the free diffusion of oxygen. Quenching of intrinsic or bound fluorophores by molecular oxygen is therefore an appropriate method to determine the accessibility to oxygen of regions of the macromolecule surrounding the fluorophore and indirectly the structural fluctuations in the macromolecule that permit its diffusion to the fluorophore.

2,300 citations


PatentDOI
19 Dec 1996-Science
Abstract: A cubic form of C3N4 with a zero-pressure bulk modulus exceeding that of diamond Also a process for preparing such product which comprises combining carbon and nitrogen at a pressure of 120,000 to 800,000 atmosphere and a temperature of 1000-3000 °C Carbon particles may be immersed in liquid nitrogen and the mixture heated by a laser beam followed by quenching

1,016 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 May 2003-Acta Materialia
Abstract: A model is developed to describe the endpoint of carbon partitioning between quenched martensite and retained austenite, in the absence of carbide formation. The model assumes a stationary α/γ interface, and requires a uniform chemical potential for carbon, but not iron, in the two phases, leading to a metastable equilibrium condition identified here as “constrained paraequilibrium” or CPE. The model is explained with example calculations showing the characteristics of the constrained paraequilibrium condition, and applications are discussed with respect to new microstructures and processes, including a new “quenching and partitioning,” or Q&P process, to create mixtures of carbon-depleted martensite, and carbon-enriched retained austenite. Important new implications with respect to fundamental elements of the bainite transformation are also discussed.

1,011 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1983-Applied Physics A
Abstract: A review is given on the diffusion, solubility and electrical activity of 3d transition metals in silicon. Transition elements (especially, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) diffuse interstitially and stay in the interstitial site in thermal equilibrium at the diffusion temperature. The parameters of the liquidus curves are identical for the Si:Ti — Si:Ni melts, indicating comparable silicon-metal interaction for all these elements. Only Cr, Mn, and Fe could be identified in undisturbed interstitial sites after quenching, the others precipitated or formed complexes. The 3d elements can be divided into two groups according to the respective enthalpy of formation of the solid solution. The distinction can arise from different charge states of these impurities at the diffusion temperature. For the interstitial 3d atoms remaining after quenching, reliable energy levels are established from the literature and compared with recent calculations.

961 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202231
2021706
2020933
20191,094
20181,146
20171,049

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Akihisa Inoue

50 papers, 2.1K citations

George E. Totten

33 papers, 527 citations

Yanghuan Zhang

32 papers, 558 citations

Božo Smoljan

29 papers, 236 citations

John G. Speer

25 papers, 2.1K citations