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Racism

About: Racism is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 28422 publications have been published within this topic receiving 735218 citations. The topic is also known as: fear of social diversification.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the race and gender dimensions of violence against women of color and found that the experiences of women of colour are often the product of intersecting patterns of racism and sexism, and how these experiences tend not to be represented within the discourse of either feminism or antiracism.
Abstract: Over the last two decades, women have organized against the almost routine violence that shapes their lives. Drawing from the strength of shared experience, women have recognized that the political demands of millions speak more powerfully than the pleas of a few isolated voices. This politicization in turn has transformed the way we understand violence against women. For example, battering and rape, once seen as private (family matters) and aberrational (errant sexual aggression), are now largely recognized as part of a broad-scale system of domination that affects women as a class. This process of recognizing as social and systemic what was formerly perceived as isolated and individual has also characterized the identity politics of people of color and gays and lesbians, among others. For all these groups, identity-based politics has been a source of strength, community, and intellectual development. The embrace of identity politics, however, has been in tension with dominant conceptions of social justice. Race, gender, and other identity categories are most often treated in mainstream liberal discourse as vestiges of bias or domination-that is, as intrinsically negative frameworks in which social power works to exclude or marginalize those who are different. According to this understanding, our liberatory objective should be to empty such categories of any social significance. Yet implicit in certain strands of feminist and racial liberation movements, for example, is the view that the social power in delineating difference need not be the power of domination; it can instead be the source of political empowerment and social reconstruction. The problem with identity politics is not that it fails to transcend difference, as some critics charge, but rather the opposite- that it frequently conflates or ignores intra group differences. In the context of violence against women, this elision of difference is problematic, fundamentally because the violence that many women experience is often shaped by other dimensions of their identities, such as race and class. Moreover, ignoring differences within groups frequently contributes to tension among groups, another problem of identity politics that frustrates efforts to politicize violence against women. Feminist efforts to politicize experiences of women and antiracist efforts to politicize experiences of people of color' have frequently proceeded as though the issues and experiences they each detail occur on mutually exclusive terrains. Al-though racism and sexism readily intersect in the lives of real people, they seldom do in feminist and antiracist practices. And so, when the practices expound identity as "woman" or "person of color" as an either/or proposition, they relegate the identity of women of color to a location that resists telling. My objective here is to advance the telling of that location by exploring the race and gender dimensions of violence against women of color. Contemporary feminist and antiracist discourses have failed to consider the intersections of racism and patriarchy. Focusing on two dimensions of male violence against women-battering and rape-I consider how the experiences of women of color are frequently the product of intersecting patterns of racism and sexism, and how these experiences tend not to be represented within the discourse of either feminism or antiracism... Language: en

15,236 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: The authors argues that Black women are sometimes excluded from feminist theory and antiracist policy discourse because both are predicated on a discrete set of experiences that often does not accurately reflect the interaction of race and gender.
Abstract: This chapter examines how the tendency is perpetuated by a single-axis framework that is dominant in antidiscrimination law and that is also reflected in feminist theory and antiracist politics. It suggests that this single-axis framework erases Black women in the conceptualization, identification and remediation of race and sex discrimination by limiting inquiry to the experiences of otherwise-privileged members of the group. The chapter focuses on otherwise-privileged group members creates a distorted analysis of racism and sexism because the operative conceptions of race and sex become grounded in experiences that actually represent only a subset of a much more complex phenomenon. It argues that Black women are sometimes excluded from feminist theory and antiracist policy discourse because both are predicated on a discrete set of experiences that often does not accurately reflect the interaction of race and gender. The chapter discusses the feminist critique of rape and separate spheres ideology.

11,236 citations

Book
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: The Critical Race Theory (CRT) movement as discussed by the authors was one of the first movements of critical race theory in the 20th century and has been studied extensively in the last few decades.
Abstract: Acknowledgments Foreword Preface I A. What Is Critical Race Theory? B. Early Origins C. Relationship to Previous Movements D. Principal Figures E. Spin-off Movements F. Basic Tenets of Critical Race Theory G. How Much Racism Is There in the World? H. Organization of This Book II A. Interest Convergence, Material Determinism, and Racial Realism B. Revisionist History C. Critique of Liberalism D. Structural Determinism III A. Opening a Window onto Ignored or Alternative Realities B. Counterstorytelling C. Cure for Silencing D. Storytelling in Court E. Storytelling on the Defensive IV A. Intersectionality B. Essentialism and Antiessentialism C. Nationalism versus Assimilation V A. The Black-White Binary B. Critical White Studies C. Other Developments: Latino and Asian VI VII A. Right-Wing Offensive B. Postracialism and a Politics of Triangulation C. Power D. Identity VIII A. The Future B. A Critical Race Agenda for the New Century C. Likely Responses to the Critical Race Theory Movement Glossary of Terms Index About the Authors

4,012 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Almost all interracial encounters are prone to microaggressions; this article uses the White counselor--client of color counseling dyad to illustrate how they impair the development of a therapeutic alliance.
Abstract: Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they interact with racial/ethnic minorities. A taxonomy of racial microaggressions in everyday life was created through a review of the social psychological literature on aversive racism, from formulations regarding the manifestation and impact of everyday racism, and from reading numerous personal narratives of counselors (both White and those of color) on their racial/cultural awakening. Microaggressions seem to appear in three forms: microassault, microinsult, and microinvalidation. Almost all interracial encounters are prone to microaggressions; this article uses the White counselor--client of color counseling dyad to illustrate how they impair the development of a therapeutic alliance. Suggestions regarding education and training and research in the helping professions are discussed.

3,916 citations

Book
01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: The theory of race formation in the United States has been studied extensively in the literature, e.g., in this paper, with a focus on three categories of race: ethnicity, class, and nation.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Racial Formation in the United States Part I: PARADIGMS OF RACE: eTHNICITY, CLASS, AND NATION 1. Ethnicity 2. Class 3. Nation Part II: RACIAL FORMATION 4. The Theory of Racial Formation 5. Racial Politics and the Racial State Part III: RACIAL POLITICS SINCE World War II 6. The Great Transformation 7. Racial Reaction: Containment and Rearticulation 8. Colorblindness, Neoliberalism, and Obama CONCLUSION: The Contrarieties of Race

3,510 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
20232,158
20224,609
20211,760
20201,525
20191,189