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About: Radiance is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 9537 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 215652 citation(s).
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01 Jan 1974-
Abstract: The Great Plains Corridor rangeland project utilizes natural vegetation systems as phenological indicators of seasonal development and climatic effects upon regional growth conditions. A method has been developed for quantitative measurement of vegetation conditions over broad regions using ERTS-1 MSS data. Radiance values recorded in ERTS-1 spectral bands 5 and 7, corrected for sun angle, are used to compute a band ratio parameter which is shown to be correlated with aboveground green biomass on rangelands.

5,827 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
03 Aug 1997-
TL;DR: This work discusses how this work is applicable in many areas of computer graphics involving digitized photographs, including image-based modeling, image compositing, and image processing, and demonstrates a few applications of having high dynamic range radiance maps.
Abstract: We present a method of recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs taken with conventional imaging equipment. In our method, multiple photographs of the scene are taken with different amounts of exposure. Our algorithm uses these differently exposed photographs to recover the response function of the imaging process, up to factor of scale, using the assumption of reciprocity. With the known response function, the algorithm can fuse the multiple photographs into a single, high dynamic range radiance map whose pixel values are proportional to the true radiance values in the scene. We demonstrate our method on images acquired with both photochemical and digital imaging processes. We discuss how this work is applicable in many areas of computer graphics involving digitized photographs, including image-based modeling, image compositing, and image processing. Lastly, we demonstrate a few applications of having high dynamic range radiance maps, such as synthesizing realistic motion blur and simulating the response of the human visual system.

2,775 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The developed algorithm is adapted for the retrieval of aerosol properties from measurements made by ground-based Sun-sky scanning radiometers used in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and allows a choice of normal or lognormal noise assumptions.
Abstract: The problem of deriving a complete set of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements is discussed. Algorithm development is focused on improving aerosol retrievals by means of including a detailed statistical optimization of the influence of noise in the inversion procedure. The methodological aspects of such an optimization are discussed in detail and revised according to both modern findings in inversion theory and practical experience in remote sensing. Accordingly, the proposed inversion algorithm is built on the principles of statistical estimation: the spectral radiances and various a priori constraints on aerosol characteristics are considered as multisource data that are known with predetermined accuracy. The inversion is designed as a search for the best fit of all input data by a theoretical model that takes into account the different levels of accuracy of the fitted data. The algorithm allows a choice of normal or lognormal noise assumptions. The multivariable fitting is implemented by a stable numerical procedure combining matrix inversion and univariant relaxation. The theoretical inversion scheme has been realized in the advanced algorithm retrieving aerosol size distribution together with complex refractive index from the spectral measurements of direct and diffuse radiation. The aerosol particles are modeled as homogeneous spheres. The atmospheric radiative transfer modeling is implemented with well-established publicly available radiative transfer codes. The retrieved refractive indices can be wavelength dependent; however, the extended smoothness constraints are applied to its spectral dependence (and indirectly through smoothness constraints on retrieved size distributions). The positive effects of statistical optimization on the retrieval results as well as the importance of applying a priori constraints are discussed in detail for the retrieval of both aerosol size distribution and complex refractive index. The developed algorithm is adapted for the retrieval of aerosol properties from measurements made by ground-based Sun-sky scanning radiometers used in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The results of numerical tests together with examples of experimental data inversions are presented.

1,951 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: A major benefit of multitemporal, remotely sensed images is their applicability to change detection over time. Because of concerns about global and environmental change, these data are becoming increasingly more important. However, to maximize the usefulness of the data from a multitemporal point of view, an easy-to-use, cost-effective, and accurate radiometric calibration and correction procedure is needed. The atmosphere effects the radiance received at the satellite by scattering, absorbing, and refracting light; corrections for these effects, as well as for sensor gains and offsets, solar irradiance, and solar zenith angles, must be included in radiometric correction procedures that are used to convert satellite-recorded digital counts to ground reflectances. To generate acceptable radiometric correction results, a model is required that typically uses in-situ atmospheric measurements and radiative transfer code (RTC) to correct for atmospheric effects. The main disadvantage of this type of correction procedure is that it requires in-situ field measurements during each satellite overflight. This is unacceptable for many applications and is often impossible, as when using historical data or when working in very remote locations. The optimum radiometric correction procedure is one based solely on the digital image and requiring no in-situ field measurements during the satellite overflight. The darkobject subtraction (DOS) method, a strictly image-based technique, is an attempt to achieve this ideal procedure. However, the accuracy is not acceptable for many applications, mostly because it corrects only for the additive scattering effect and not for the multiplicative transmittance effect. This paper presents an entirely image-based procedure that expands on the ~10s model by including a simple multiplicative correction for the effect of atmospheric transmittance. Two straightforward methods to derive the multiplicative transmittance-correction coefficient are presented. The COSITZ) or COST method uses the cosine of the solar zenith angle, which, to a first order, is a good approximation of the atmospheric transmittance for the dates und sites used in this study. The default TAUS method uses the average of the transmittance values computed by using in-situ atmospheric field measurements made during seven different satellite overflights. Published and unpublished data made available for this study by Moran et al. (1992) are used, and my model results are compared with their results. The corrections generated by the entirely image-based COST model are as accurate as those generated by the models that used in-situ atmospheric field measurements and RTC software.

1,858 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An approximate analytic solution is derived for the radiative transfer equation describing particulate surface light scattering, taking into account multiple scattering and mutual shadowing. Analytical expressions for the following quantities are found: bidirectional reflectance, radiance coefficient and factor, the normal, Bond, hemispherical, and physical albedos, integral phase function and phase integral, and limb-darkening profile. Scattering functions for mixtures can be calculated, as well as corrections for comparisons of experimental transmission or reflection spectra with observational planetary spectra. The theory should be useful for the interpretation of reflectance spectroscopy of laboratory surfaces and the photometry of solar system objects.

1,676 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

William L. Smith

105 papers, 3.5K citations

Robert O. Knuteson

69 papers, 2.5K citations

Howard R. Gordon

39 papers, 5.2K citations

Henry E. Revercomb

30 papers, 503 citations

David C. Tobin

29 papers, 629 citations