Radiation-induced lung injury
About: Radiation-induced lung injury is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 258 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 6877 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Radiation Pneumonitis.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail and it is confirmed that there is no evident threshold "tolerance dose-volume" levels and there are strong volume and fractionation effects.
Abstract: The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail. The rate of symptomatic pneumonitis is related to many dosimetric parameters, and there are no evident threshold "tolerance dose-volume" levels. There are strong volume and fractionation effects.
TL;DR: The temporal relationship between the elevation of specific cytokines and the histological and biochemical evidence of fibrosis serves to illustrate the continuum of response, which, it is believed, underlies pulmonary radiation reactions and supports the concept of a perpetual cascade of cytokines produced immediately after irradiation.
Abstract: PURPOSE Radiation-induced pulmonary reactions have classically been viewed as distinct phases--acute pneumonitis and, later, fibrosis--occurring at different times after irradiation and attributed to different target cell populations. We prefer to view these events as a continuum, with no clear distinction between the temporal sequence of the different pulmonary reactions; the progression is the result of an early activation of an inflammatory reaction, leading to the expression and maintenance of a cytokine cascade. In the current study, we have examined the temporal and spatial expression of cytokine and extracellular matrix messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) abundance in fibrosis-sensitive mice after thoracic irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS Radiation fibrosis-prone (C57BL/6) mice received thoracic irradiation of 5 and 12.5 Gy. At Day 1, and 1, 2, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after treatment, animals were killed and lung tissue processed for light microscopy and isolation of RNA. Expression of cytokine and extracellular matrix mRNA abundance was evaluated by slot-blot analysis and cellular localization by in situ hybridization and immunochemistry. RESULTS One of the cytokines responsible for the inflammatory phase (IL-1 alpha) is elevated at 2 weeks, returns to normal baseline values, then increases at 8 weeks, remaining elevated until 26 weeks when lung fibrosis appears. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), a proliferative cytokine, is elevated at 2 weeks, persists until 8 weeks, and then returns to baseline values. In parallel with the cytokine cascade, the fibrogenic markers for CI/CIII/IV (collagen genes) correlate by showing a similar early and then later elevation of activity. For instance, the collagen gene expression of CI/CIII is a biphasic response with an initial increase at 1-2 weeks that remits at 8 weeks, remains inactive from 8 to 16 weeks, and then becomes elevated at 6 months when collagen deposition is recognized histopathologically. CONCLUSION These studies clearly demonstrate the early and persistent elevation of cytokine production following pulmonary irradiation. The temporal relationship between the elevation of specific cytokines and the histological and biochemical evidence of fibrosis serves to illustrate the continuum of response, which, we believe, underlies pulmonary radiation reactions and supports the concept of a perpetual cascade of cytokines produced immediately after irradiation, prompting collagen genes to turn on, and persisting until the expression of late effects becomes apparent pathologically and clinically.
TL;DR: Radiation oncologists ought to consider dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome.
Abstract: Although radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, radiation pneumonitis is a common treatment-related toxicity. Many pulmonary function tests are not significantly altered by pulmonary toxicity of irradiation, but reductions in D(L(CO)), the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, are more commonly associated with pneumonitis. Several patient-specific factors (e.g. age, smoking history, tumor location, performance score, gender) and treatment-specific factors (e.g. chemotherapy regimen and dose) have been proposed as potential predictors of the risk of radiation pneumonitis, but these have not been consistently demonstrated across different studies. The risk of radiation pneumonitis also seems to increase as the cumulative dose of radiation to normal lung tissue increases, as measured by dose-volume histograms. However, controversy persists about which dosimetric parameter optimally predicts the risk of radiation pneumonitis, and whether the volume of lung or the dose of radiation is more important. Radiation oncologists ought to consider these dosimetric factors when designing radiation treatment plans for all patients who receive thoracic radiotherapy. Newer radiotherapy techniques and technologies may reduce the exposure of normal lung to irradiation. Several medications have also been evaluated for their ability to reduce radiation pneumonitis in animals and humans, including corticosteroids, amifostine, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, pentoxifylline, melatonin, carvedilol, and manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid/liposome. Additional research is warranted to determine the efficacy of these medications and identify nonpharmacologic strategies to predict and prevent radiation pneumonitis.
TL;DR: Three-dimensional treatment planning tools provide dosimetric predictors for the risk of symptomatic RT-induced lung injury and allow for beams to be selected to minimize these risks.
Abstract: Radiation therapy (RT) for thoracic-region tumors often causes lung injury. The incidence of lung toxicity depends on the method of assessment (eg, radiographs, patient's symptoms, or functional endpoints such as pulmonary function tests). Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning tools provide dosimetric predictors for the risk of symptomatic RT-induced lung injury and allow for beams to be selected to minimize these risks. A variety of cytokines have been implicated as indicators/mediators of lung injury. Recent work suggests that injury-associated tissue hypoxia perpetuates further injury. Sophisticated planning/delivery methods, such as intensity modulation, plus radioprotectors such as amifostine, hold promise to reduce the incidence of RT-induced lung injury.
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