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Radical ion

About: Radical ion is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7404 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 168654 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants.
Abstract: A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.

16,566 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The analytically pure base form of polyaniline, , corresponding to the emeraldine oxidation state is converted from an insulator (σ 10 −10 S/cm) to a metal (σ 5 S/cm) by treatment with 1M aqueous HCl to form the corresponding salt, emeraldine hydrochloride, . This involves a new type of doping of a conducting polymer in that the number of electrons associated with the polymer undergoes no change during the protonic acid doping process. The metallic emeraldine hydrochloride is believed to be a delocalized poly(semiquinone radical cation) having a polaron conduction band, with most of the positive charge residing on the nitrogen atoms. It exhibits a finite density of states at the Fermi energy.

1,233 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Free radical generation is directly related with oxidation in foods and biological systems. Therefore, the search for methods to determine free radical scavenging is important. In this work are described the methods used for this purpose in both substrates as well as in specific cases of their application. The main methods comprise superoxide radicals scavenging (O2·-); hydrogen peroxide scavenging (H2O2); hypochlorous acid scavenging (HOCl); hydroxyl radical scavenging (HO.); peroxyl radical scavenging (ROO.), among them are the methods that use azo-compounds to generate peroxyl radicals, such as the ``TRAP'' method (Total Radical-Trapping Antioxidant Parameter) and the ``ORAC'' method (Oxygen-Radical Absorbance Capacity); the scavenging of radical cation 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) or the ABTS or the ``TEAC'' method (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity); the scavenging of stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH . method and the scavenging of radical cation N,N-dime...

1,038 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
202185
2020119
2019108
201895
2017107