About: Radical polymerization is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 29448 publications have been published within this topic receiving 739401 citations.
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TL;DR: The authors proposed a reversible additive-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method for living free-radical polymerization, which can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and in each case it provides controlled molecular weight polymers with very narrow polydispersities.
Abstract: mechanism involves Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer, and we have designated the process the RAFT polymerization. What distinguishes RAFT polymerization from all other methods of controlled/living free-radical polymerization is that it can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and in each case it provides controlled molecular weight polymers with very narrow polydispersities (usually <1.2; sometimes <1.1). Living polymerization processes offer many benefits. These include the ability to control molecular weight and polydispersity and to prepare block copolymers and other polymers of complex architecturesmaterials which are not readily synthesized using other methodologies. Therefore, one can understand the current drive to develop a truly effective process which would combine the virtues of living polymerization with versatility and convenience of free-radical polymerization.2-4 However, existing processes described under the banner “living free-radical polymerization” suffer from a number of disadvantages. In particular, they may be applicable to only a limited range of monomers, require reagents that are expensive or difficult to remove, require special polymerization conditions (e.g. high reaction temperatures), and/or show sensitivity to acid or protic monomers. These factors have provided the impetus to search for new and better methods. There are three principal mechanisms that have been put forward to achieve living free-radical polymerization.2,5 The first is polymerization with reversible termination by coupling. Currently, the best example in this class is alkoxyamine-initiated or nitroxidemediated polymerization as first described by Rizzardo et al.6,7 and recently exploited by a number of groups in syntheses of narrow polydispersity polystyrene and related materials.4,8 The second mechanism is radical polymerization with reversible termination by ligand transfer to a metal complex (usually abbreviated as ATRP).9,10 This method has been successfully applied to the polymerization of various acrylic and styrenic monomers. The third mechanism for achieving living character is free-radical polymerization with reversible chain transfer (also termed degenerative chain transfer2). A simplified mechanism for this process is shown in
TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent mechanistic developments in the field of controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) is presented, with particular emphasis on structure-reactivity correlations and "rules" for catalyst selection in ATRP, for chain transfer agent selection in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and for the selection of an appropriate mediating agent in stable free radical polymerisation (SFRP), including organic and transition metal persistent radicals.
Abstract: Recent mechanistic developments in the field of controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on structure–reactivity correlations and “rules” for catalyst selection in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), for chain transfer agent selection in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and for the selection of an appropriate mediating agent in stable free radical polymerization (SFRP), including organic and transition metal persistent radicals. Novel methods of fine tuning initiation, activation, and deactivation processes for all techniques are discussed, including activators regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET) and initiators for continuous activator regeneration (ICAR) ATRP, whereby Cu catalyst concentrations in ATRP can be lowered to just 10 ppm. Progress made in each technique related to the synthesis of both high and low molecular weight polymers, end functional polymers, block copolymers, expanding the range of polymerizable monomers, synthesis of hybrid materials, environmental issues, and polymerization in aqueous media is thoroughly discussed and compared.
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