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About: Radiometer is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10520 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 164521 citation(s). The topic is also known as: roentgenometer. more

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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Nov 2007-Journal of Climate
Abstract: Two new high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products have been developed using optimum interpolation (OI). The analyses have a spatial grid resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 1 day. One product uses the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite SST data. The other uses AVHRR and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on the NASA Earth Observing System satellite SST data. Both products also use in situ data from ships and buoys and include a large-scale adjustment of satellite biases with respect to the in situ data. Because of AMSR’s near-all-weather coverage, there is an increase in OI signal variance when AMSR is added to AVHRR. Thus, two products are needed to avoid an analysis variance jump when AMSR became available in June 2002. For both products, the results show improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to previous weekly 1° OI analyses. The AVHRR-only product uses Pathfinder AVHRR data (currently available from January 1985 to December 2005) and operational AVHRR data for 2006 onward. Pathfinder AVHRR was chosen over operational AVHRR, when available, because Pathfinder agrees better with the in situ data. The AMSR– AVHRR product begins with the start of AMSR data in June 2002. In this product, the primary AVHRR contribution is in regions near land where AMSR is not available. However, in cloud-free regions, use of both infrared and microwave instruments can reduce systematic biases because their error characteristics are independent. more

2,850 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
George F. Smoot1, Charles L. Bennett2, A. Kogut2, Edward L. Wright3  +24 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Results of the first year of data from the differential microwave radiometers on the Cosmic Background Explorer are presented. Statistically significant structure that is well described as scale-invariant fluctuations with a Gaussian distribution is shown. The rms sky variation, smoothed to a total 10-deg FWHM Gaussian, is 30 +/-5 micro-K for Galactic latitude greater than 20-deg data with the dipole anisotropy removed. The rms cosmic quadrupole amplitude is 13 +/-4 micro-K. The angular autocorrelation of the signal in each radiometer channel and cross-correlation between channels are consistent and give a primordial fluctuation power-law spectrum with index of 1.1 +/-0.5, and an rms-quadrupole-normalized amplitude of 16 +/-4 micro-K. These features are in accord with the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum predicted by models of inflationary cosmology. more

2,122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this paper is to present the main aspects of the baseline mission and describe how soil moisture will be retrieved from SMOS data. more

Abstract: Microwave radiometry at low frequencies (L-band: 1.4 GHz, 21 cm) is an established technique for estimating surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity with a suitable sensitivity. However, from space, large antennas (several meters) are required to achieve an adequate spatial resolution at L-band. So as to reduce the problem of putting into orbit a large filled antenna, the possibility of using antenna synthesis methods has been investigated. Such a system, relying on a deployable structure, has now proved to be feasible and has led to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, which is described. The main objective of the SMOS mission is to deliver key variables of the land surfaces (soil moisture fields), and of ocean surfaces (sea surface salinity fields). The SMOS mission is based on a dual polarized L-band radiometer using aperture synthesis (two-dimensional [2D] interferometer) so as to achieve a ground resolution of 50 km at the swath edges coupled with multiangular acquisitions. The radiometer will enable frequent and global coverage of the globe and deliver surface soil moisture fields over land and sea surface salinity over the oceans. The SMOS mission was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in the framework of the Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions. It was selected for a tentative launch in 2005. The goal of this paper is to present the main aspects of the baseline mission and describe how soil moisture will be retrieved from SMOS data. more

1,392 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on the excellent radiometric and spectral performance demonstrated by AIRS during prelaunch testing, it is expected the assimilation of AIRS data into the numerical weather forecast to result in significant forecast range and reliability improvements. more

Abstract: The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB) form an integrated cross-track scanning temperature and humidity sounding system on the Aqua satellite of the Earth Observing System (EOS). AIRS is an infrared spectrometer/radiometer that covers the 3.7-15.4-/spl mu/m spectral range with 2378 spectral channels. AMSU is a 15-channel microwave radiometer operating between 23 and 89 GHz. HSB is a four-channel microwave radiometer that makes measurements between 150 and 190 GHz. In addition to supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's interest in process study and climate research, AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared radiometer designed to support the operational requirements for medium-range weather forecasting of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and other numerical weather forecasting centers. AIRS, together with the AMSU and HSB microwave radiometers, will achieve global retrieval accuracy of better than 1 K in the lower troposphere under clear and partly cloudy conditions. This paper presents an overview of the science objectives, AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, retrieval algorithms, and the ground-data processing concepts. The EOS Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002 from Vandenberg AFB, CA, into a 705-km-high, sun-synchronous orbit. Based on the excellent radiometric and spectral performance demonstrated by AIRS during prelaunch testing, which has by now been verified during on-orbit testing, we expect the assimilation of AIRS data into the numerical weather forecast to result in significant forecast range and reliability improvements. more

1,298 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An estimate of global net primary production in the ocean has been computed from the monthly mean near-surface chlorophyll fields for 1979-1986 obtained by the Nimbus 7 CZCS radiometer. Our model required information about the subsurface distribution of chlorophyll, the parameters of the photosynthesis-light relationship, the sun angle and cloudiness. The computations were partitioned among 57 biogeochemical provinces that were specified from regional oceanography and by examination of the chlorophyll fields. Making different assumptions about the overestimation of chlorophyll by the CZCS in turbid coastal areas, the global net primary production from phytoplankton is given as 45-50 Gt C year"1. This may be compared with current published estimates for land plants of 45-68 Gt C year"' and for coastal vegetation of 1.9 Gt C year"1. more

1,283 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Christopher S. Ruf

99 papers, 1.9K citations

Adriano Camps

78 papers, 1.1K citations

Martti Hallikainen

67 papers, 594 citations

Albin J. Gasiewski

62 papers, 1K citations

Shannon Brown

46 papers, 425 citations