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Radioresistance

About: Radioresistance is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3564 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 118877 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Radiation Tolerance.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Shideng Bao1, Qiulian Wu, Roger E. McLendon, Yueling Hao  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
07 Dec 2006-Nature
TL;DR: This work shows that cancer stem cells contribute to glioma radioresistance through preferential activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and an increase in DNA repair capacity, and suggests that CD133-positive tumour cells could be the source of tumour recurrence after radiation.
Abstract: Ionizing radiation represents the most effective therapy for glioblastoma (World Health Organization grade IV glioma), one of the most lethal human malignancies, but radiotherapy remains only palliative because of radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying tumour radioresistance have remained elusive. Here we show that cancer stem cells contribute to glioma radioresistance through preferential activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and an increase in DNA repair capacity. The fraction of tumour cells expressing CD133 (Prominin-1), a marker for both neural stem cells and brain cancer stem cells, is enriched after radiation in gliomas. In both cell culture and the brains of immunocompromised mice, CD133-expressing glioma cells survive ionizing radiation in increased proportions relative to most tumour cells, which lack CD133. CD133-expressing tumour cells isolated from both human glioma xenografts and primary patient glioblastoma specimens preferentially activate the DNA damage checkpoint in response to radiation, and repair radiation-induced DNA damage more effectively than CD133-negative tumour cells. In addition, the radioresistance of CD133-positive glioma stem cells can be reversed with a specific inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases. Our results suggest that CD133-positive tumour cells represent the cellular population that confers glioma radioresistance and could be the source of tumour recurrence after radiation. Targeting DNA damage checkpoint response in cancer stem cells may overcome this radioresistance and provide a therapeutic model for malignant brain cancers.

5,242 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown here that NHEJ-defective hamster cells (CHO mutant V3 cells) have strongly reduced repair in all cell cycle phases after 1 Gy of irradiation, and HR is particularly important in late S/G2, where both pathways contribute to repair and radioresistance.
Abstract: Little is known about the quantitative contributions of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in different cell cycle phases after physiologically relevant doses of ionizing radiation. Using immunofluorescence detection of -H2AX nuclear foci as a novel approach for monitoring the repair of DSBs, we show here that NHEJ-defective hamster cells (CHO mutant V3 cells) have strongly reduced repair in all cell cycle phases after 1 Gy of irradiation. In contrast, HR-defective CHO irs1SF cells have a minor repair defect in G1, greater impairment in S, and a substantial defect in late S/G2. Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of irs1SF cells is slight in G1 but dramatically higher in late S/G2, while V3 cells show high sensitivity throughout the cell cycle. These findings show that NHEJ is important in all cell cycle phases, while HR is particularly important in late S/G2, where both pathways contribute to repair and radioresistance. In contrast to DSBs produced by ionizing radiation, DSBs produced by the replication inhibitor aphidicolin are repaired entirely by HR. irs1SF, but not V3, cells show hypersensitivity to aphidicolin treatment. These data provide the first evaluation of the cell cycle-specific contributions of NHEJ and HR to the repair of radiation-induced versus replication-associated DSBs.

1,148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel pathways contributing significantly to the understanding of HIF-1 regulation which may be major determinants of tumor radiosensitivity, potentially having high clinical relevance are described.
Abstract: Through a poorly understood mechanism, tumors respond to radiation by secreting cytokines capable of inhibiting apoptosis in endothelial cells, thereby diminishing treatment response by minimizing vascular damage. We reveal here that this pathway is governed by a major angiogenesis regulator, HIF-1. Following radiotherapy, tumor reoxygenation leads to: (1) nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 in response to reactive oxygen, and (2) enhanced translation of HIF-1-regulated transcripts secondary to stress granule depolymerization. The resulting increase in HIF-1-regulated cytokines enhances endothelial cell radioresistance. Inhibiting postradiation HIF-1 activation significantly increases tumor radiosensitivity as a result of enhanced vascular destruction. These data describe novel pathways contributing significantly to our understanding of HIF-1 regulation which may be major determinants of tumor radiosensitivity, potentially having high clinical relevance.

865 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: It is reported that VEGF expression is induced in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLCs) both in vitro and in vivo after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and in human tumor cell lines (Seg-1 esophageal adenocarcinoma, SQ20B squamous cell carcinoma, T98 and U87 glioblastomas, and U1 melanoma) in vitro.
Abstract: The family of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins include potent and specific mitogens for vascular endothelial cells that function in the lation of angiogenesis Inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis either by neutralizing antibodies or dominant-negative soluble receptor, blocks the growth of primary and metastatic experimental tumors Here we report that VEGF expression is induced in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLCs) both in vitro and vivo after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and in human tumor cell lines (Seg-1 esophageal adenocarcinoma, SQ20B squamous cell carcinoma, T98 and U87 glioblastomas, and U1 melanoma) in vitro. The biological significance of IR-induced VEGF production is supported by our finding that treatment of tumor-bearing mice (LLC, Seg-1, SQ20B, and U87) with a neutralizing antibody to VEGF-165 before irradiation is associated with a greater than additive antitumor effect. In vitro, the addition of VEGF decreases IR-induced killing of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and the anti-VEGF treatment potentiates IR-induced lethality of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Neither recombinant VEGF protein nor neutralizing antibody to VEGF affects the radiosensitivity of tumor cells These findings support a model in which induction of VEGF by IR contributes to the protection of tumor blood vessels from radiation-mediated cytotoxicity and thereby to tumor radioresistance.

834 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Doses of x-radiation that markedly inhibited the rate of DNA synthesis in normal human cells caused almost no inhibition in AT cells and thus less delay during which x-ray damage could be repaired, allowing normal cells to repair DNA damage before it can be expressed.
Abstract: The cause of increased radiosensitivity in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells may be a defect in their ability to respond to DNA damage rather than a defect in their ability to repair it. Doses of x-radiation that markedly inhibited the rate of DNA synthesis in normal human cells caused almost no inhibition in AT cells and thus less delay during which x-ray damage could be repaired. The radioresistance of DNA synthesis in AT cells was primarily due to a much smaller inhibition of replicon initiation than in normal cells; the AT cells were also more resistant to damage that inhibited chain elongation. AT cells have been reported to undergo less radiation-induced mitotic delay than normal cells, which may cause them to move from G2 phase into mitosis before repair is complete and may result in the increased incidence of chromatid aberrations observed by others. Therefore, AT cells fail to go through those delays that allow normal cells to repair DNA damage before it can be expressed.

777 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021305
2020294
2019259
2018236
2017245