About: Radon is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10139 publications have been published within this topic receiving 119118 citations. The topic is also known as: Rn & element 86.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Collectively, though not separately, these studies show appreciable hazards from residential radon, particularly for smokers and recent ex-smokers, and indicate that it is responsible for about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe.
Abstract: Objective To determine the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure at home to the radioactive disintegration products of naturally occurring radon gas Design Collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. Setting Nine European countries. Subjects 7148 cases of lung cancer and 14 208 controls. Main outcome measures Relative risks of lung cancer and radon gas concentrations in homes inhabited during the previous 5-34 years measured in becquerels (radon disintegrations per second) per cubic metre (Bq/m 3 )o f household air. Results The mean measured radon concentration in homes of people in the control group was 97 Bq/m 3 , with 11% measuring > 200 and 4% measuring > 400 Bq/m 3 . For cases of lung cancer the mean concentration was 104 Bq/m 3 . The risk of lung cancer increased by 8.4% (95% confidence interval 3.0% to 15.8%) per 100 Bq/m 3 increase in measured radon (P = 0.0007). This corresponds to an increase of 16% (5% to 31%) per 100 Bq/m 3 increase in usual radon—that is, after correction for the dilution caused by random uncertainties in measuring radon concentrations. The dose-response relation seemed to be linear with no threshold and remained significant (P = 0.04) in analyses limited to individuals from homes with measured radon < 200 Bq/m 3 . The proportionate excess risk did not differ significantly with study, age, sex, or smoking. In the absence of other causes of death, the absolute risks of lung cancer by age 75 years at usual radon concentrations of 0, 100, and 400 Bq/m 3 would be about 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.7%, respectively, for lifelong non-smokers, and about 25 times greater (10%, 12%, and 16%) for cigarette smokers. Conclusions Collectively, though not separately, these studies show appreciable hazards from residential radon, particularly for smokers and recent ex-smokers, and indicate that it is responsible for about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe.
TL;DR: Direct evidence is provided of an association between residential radon and lung cancer risk, a finding predicted using miner data and consistent with results from animal and in vitro studies.
Abstract: Background:Underground miners exposed to high levels of radon have an excess risk of lung cancer. Residential exposure to radon is at much lower levels, and the risk of lung cancer with residential exposure is less clear. We conducted a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American resi
TL;DR: In this paper, a total global model is proposed for radon-222 and its daughters, and the mean residence time of aerosols is analyzed in terms of radon flux and lead-210 atmospheric flux.
Abstract: The following topics are discussed: measurement of the radon-222 flux to the atmosphere; measurement of the lead-210 atmospheric flux; and the mean residence time of aerosols. A total global model is proposed for radon-222 and its daughters.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the factors that control the rate at which two radon isotopes, 222Rn and 220Rn, enter outdoor and indoor air from soil.
Abstract: Radon generated within the upper few meters of the Earth's crust by the radioactive decay of radium can migrate during its brief lifetime from soil into the atmosphere. This phenomenon leads to a human health concern as inhalation of the short-lived decay products of radon causes irradiation of cells lining the respiratory tract. This paper reviews the factors that control the rate at which two radon isotopes, 222Rn and 220Rn, enter outdoor and indoor air from soil. The radium content of surface soils in the United States is usually in the range 10–100 Bq kg−1. The emanation coefficient, which refers to the fraction of radon generated in a material that enters the pore fluids, varies over a wide range with a typical value being 0.2. Radon in soil pores may be partitioned among three states: in the pore air, dissolved in the pore water, and sorbed to the soil grains. Except in the immediate vicinity of buildings, radon migrates through soil pores principally by molecular diffusion. Average reported flux densities from undisturbed soil into the atmosphere are 0.015–0.048 Bq m−2 s−1 for 222Rn and 1.6–1.7 Bq m−2 s−1 for 220Rn. Soil is the dominant source of radon in most buildings. Advective flow of soil gas across substructure penetrations is a key element in the transport process. The advective flow is driven by the weather (wind and indoor-outdoor temperature differences) and by the operation of building systems, such as heating and air conditioning equipment. A typical radon entry rate into a single-family dwelling of 10–15 kBq h−1 can be accounted for by weather-induced pressure-driven flow through moderately to highly permeable soils. The extent to which diffusion through soil pores contributes to radon entry into buildings is not known, but in buildings with elevated concentrations, diffusion is believed to be less important than advection.
01 Jan 1973
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