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Raman scattering

About: Raman scattering is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 38492 publications have been published within this topic receiving 902682 citations. The topic is also known as: Raman effect.


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Journal ArticleDOI
21 Feb 1997-Science
TL;DR: In this article, surface-enhanced Raman scattering was used to detect single molecules and single nanoparticles at room temperature with the use of surface enhanced Raman, and the intrinsic Raman enhancement factors were on the order of 10 14 to 10 15, much larger than the ensemble-averaged values derived from conventional measurements.
Abstract: Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules and single nanoparticles have been achieved at room temperature with the use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Individual silver colloidal nanoparticles were screened from a large heterogeneous population for special size-dependent properties and were then used to amplify the spectroscopic signatures of adsorbed molecules. For single rhodamine 6G molecules adsorbed on the selected nanoparticles, the intrinsic Raman enhancement factors were on the order of 10 14 to 10 15 , much larger than the ensemble-averaged values derived from conventional measurements. This enormous enhancement leads to vibrational Raman signals that are more intense and more stable than single-molecule fluorescence.

9,609 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect was first discovered by Fleischmann, Van Duyne, Creighton, and Creighton as discussed by the authors, who showed that molecules adsorbed on specially prepared silver surfaces produce a Raman spectrum that is at times a millionfold more intense than expected.
Abstract: In 1978 it was discovered, largely through the work of Fleischmann, Van Duyne, Creighton, and their coworkers that molecules adsorbed on specially prepared silver surfaces produce a Raman spectrum that is at times a millionfold more intense than expected. This effect was dubbed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Since then the effect has been demonstrated with many molecules and with a number of metals, including Cu, Ag, Au, Li, Na, K, In, Pt, and Rh. In addition, related phenomena such as surface-enhanced second-harmonic generation, four-wave mixing, absorption, and fluorescence have been observed. Although not all fine points of the enhancement mechanism have been clarified, the majority view is that the largest contributor to the intensity amplification results from the electric field enhancement that occurs in the vicinity of small, interacting metal particles that are illuminated with light resonant or near resonant with the localized surface-plasmon frequency of the metal structure. Small in this context is gauged in relation to the wavelength of light. The special preparations required to produce the effect, which include among other techniques electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycling, deposition of metal on very cold substrates, and the generation of metal-island films and colloids, is now understood to be necessary as a means of producing surfaces with appropriate electromagnetic resonances that may couple to electromagnetic fields either by generating rough films (as in the case of the former two examples) or by placing small metal particles in close proximity to one another (as in the case of the latter two). For molecules chemisorbed on SERS-active surface there exists a "chemical enhancement" in addition to the electromagnetic effect. Although difficult to measure accurately, the magnitude of this effect rarely exceeds a factor of 10 and is best thought to arise from the modification of the Raman polarizability tensor of the adsorbate resulting from the formation of a complex between the adsorbate and the metal. Rather than an enhancement mechanism, the chemical effect is more logically to be regarded as a change in the nature and identity of the adsorbate.

5,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the first-order and double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features and give special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal configuration.

4,945 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Several negatively charged dyes were investigated for their possible adsorption on the surface of colloidal particles and those dyes that were found to adsorb on the particles were then checked for surface enhancement of Raman scattering.
Abstract: Several negatively charged dyes were investigated for their possible adsorption on the surface of silver and gold colloidal particles. Those dyes that were found to adsorb on the particles were then checked for surface enhancement of Raman scattering. Highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was observed from a carbocyanine dye in both sols. Excitation-dependence studies as well as adsorption studies confirm the SERS nature of the Raman spectra obtained. The dye is probably aggregated on adsorption and is probably attached through the naphthalene side moiety to the surface. Less efficient SERS was also observed for copper phthalocyanine.

4,438 citations

Book
15 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a simulation of the optical response functions of a multilevel system with relaxation in a multimode Brownian Oscillator Model and a wavepacket analysis of nonimpulsive measurements.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Quantum Dynamics in Hilbert Space 3. The Density Operator and Quantum Dynamics in Liouville Space 4. Quantum Electrodynamics, Optical Polarization, and Nonlinear Spectroscopy 5. Nonlinear Response Functions and Optical Susceptibilities 6. The Optical Response Functions of a Multilevel System with Relaxation 7. Semiclassical Simulation of the Optical Response Functions 8. The Cumulant Expansion and the Multimode Brownian Oscillator Model 9. Fluorescence, Spontaneous-Raman and Coherent-Raman Spectroscopy 10. Selective Elimination of Inhomogeneous Broadening Photon Echoes 11. Resonant Gratings, Pump-Probe, and Hole Burning Spectroscopy 12. Wavepacket Dynamics in Liouville Space The Wigner Representation 13. Wavepacket Analysis of Nonimpulsive Measurements 14. Off-Resonance Raman Scattering 15. Polarization Spectroscopy Birefringence and Dichroism 16. Nonlinear Response of Molecular Assemblies The Local-Field Approximation 17. Many Body and Cooperative Effects in the Nonlinear Response

4,011 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023841
20221,840
2021843
20201,049
20191,068
20181,057