Topic

# Range of a projectile

About: Range of a projectile is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 514 publications have been published within this topic receiving 4865 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

TL;DR: In this article, a general non-dimensional formula based on the dynamic cavityexpansion model is proposed to predict penetration depth into several mediums subjected to a normal impact of a non-deformable projectile.

Abstract: A general non-dimensional formula based on the dynamic cavity-expansion model is proposed to predict penetration depth into several mediums subjected to a normal impact of a non-deformable projectile. The proposed formula depends on two dimensionless numbers and shows good agreement with penetration tests on metal, concrete and soil for a range of nose shapes and impact velocities. The validity of the formula requires that the penetration depth is larger than the projectile diameter and the projectile nose length while projectile remains rigid without noticeable deformation and damage.

230 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of angle of impact on the trajectory of an oblique impact and showed that the distribution of shock pressure inside the projectile and in the target is highly complex, possessing only bilateral symmetry.

Abstract: — All impacts are oblique to some degree. Only rarely do projectiles strike a planetary surface (near) vertically. The effects of an oblique impact event on the target are well known, producing craters that appear circular even for low impact angles (>15° with respect to the surface). However, we still have much to learn about the fate of the projectile, especially in oblique impact events. This work investigates the effect of angle of impact on the projectile.
Sandia National Laboratories' three-dimensional hydrocode CTH was used for a series of high-resolution simulations (50 cells per projectile radius) with varying angle of impact. Simulations were carried out for impacts at 90, 60, 45, 30, and 15° from the horizontal, while keeping projectile size (5 km in radius), type (dunite), and impact velocity (20 km/s) constant.
The three-dimensional hydrocode simulations presented here show that in oblique impacts the distribution of shock pressure inside the projectile (and in the target as well) is highly complex, possessing only bilateral symmetry, even for a spherical projectile. Available experimental data suggest that only the vertical component of the impact velocity plays a role in an impact. If this were correct, simple theoretical considerations indicate that shock pressure, temperature, and energy would depend on sin2θ, where θ is the angle of impact (measured from the horizontal). However, our numerical simulations show that the mean shock pressure in the projectile is better fit by a sin θ dependence, whereas shock temperature and energy depend on sin3/2 θ. This demonstrates that in impact events the shock wave is the result of complex processes that cannot be described by simple empirical rules. The mass of shock melt or vapor in the projectile decreases drastically for low impact angles as a result of the weakening of the shock for decreasing impact angles. In particular, for asteroidal impacts the amount of projectile vaporized is always limited to a small fraction of the projectile mass. In cometary impacts, however, most of the projectile is vaporized even at low impact angles.
In the oblique impact simulations a large fraction of the projectile material retains a net downrange motion. In agreement with experimental work, the simulations show that for low impact angles (30 and 15°), a downrange focusing of projectile material occurs, and a significant amount of it travels at velocities larger than the escape velocity of Earth.

194 citations

••

TL;DR: The experiments and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the mean deceleration of the projectile is constant and proportional to the impact velocity, and the probability distribution function of forces on grains is time independent during a projectile's decelerations in the medium.

Abstract: Our experiments and molecular dynamics simulations on a projectile penetrating a two-dimensional granular medium reveal that the mean deceleration of the projectile is constant and proportional to the impact velocity. Thus, the time taken for a projectile to decelerate to a stop is independent of its impact velocity. The simulations show that the probability distribution function of forces on grains is time independent during a projectile's deceleration in the medium. At all times the force distribution function decreases exponentially for large forces.

140 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, an analytical model to calculate decrease of kinetic energy and residual velocity of a high velocity projectile penetrating targets composed of multi-layered planar plain-woven fabrics is presented.

Abstract: This paper presents an analytical model to calculate decrease of kinetic energy and residual velocity of projectile penetrating targets composed of multi-layered planar plain-woven fabrics. Based on the energy conservation law, the absorbed kinetic energy of projectile equals to kinetic energy and strain energy of planar fabric in impact-deformed region if deformation of projectile and heat generated by interaction between projectile and target are neglected. Then the decrease of kinetic energy and residual velocity of projectile after the projectile perforating multi-layered planar fabric targets could be calculated. Owing to fibers in fabric are under a high strain rate state when fabric targets being perforated by a high velocity projectile, the mechanical properties of the two kinds of fibers, Twaron® and Kuralon®, respectively, at strain rate from 1.0×10−2 to 1.5×103 s−1, are used to calculate the residual velocity of projectile. It is shown that the mechanical properties of fibers at high strain rate should be adopted in modeling rate-sensitivity materials. Prediction of the residual velocities and energy absorbed by the multi-layered planar fabrics show good agreement with experimental data. Compared with other models on the same subject, the perforating time in this model can be estimated from the time during which certain strain at a given strain rate is generated. This method of time estimation is feasible in pure theoretical modeling when the perforation time cannot be obtained from experiments or related empirical equations.

139 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the equations of motion for a dual-spin projectile in atmospheric flight were developed and subsequently utilized to solve for angle of attack and swerving dynamics, where a combination hydrodynamic and roller bearing couples forward and aft body roll motions.

Abstract: : The equations of motion for a dual-spin projectile in atmospheric flight are developed and subsequently utilized to solve for angle of attack and swerving dynamics. A combination hydrodynamic and roller bearing couples forward and aft body roll motions. Using a modified projectile linear theory developed for this configuration, it is shown that the dynamic stability factor, S(g), and the gyroscopic stability factor, S(g) are altered compared to a similar rigid projectile, due to new epicyclic fast and slow arm equations. Swerving dynamics including aerodynamic jump are studied using the linear theory.

103 citations