Topic

# Rank (linear algebra)

About: Rank (linear algebra) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 18682 publications have been published within this topic receiving 385657 citations. The topic is also known as: matrix rank & rank of matrix.

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TL;DR: It is suggested that if Guttman's latent-root-one lower bound estimate for the rank of a correlation matrix is accepted as a psychometric upper bound, then the rank for a sample matrix should be estimated by subtracting out the component in the latent roots which can be attributed to sampling error.

Abstract: It is suggested that if Guttman's latent-root-one lower bound estimate for the rank of a correlation matrix is accepted as a psychometric upper bound, following the proofs and arguments of Kaiser and Dickman, then the rank for a sample matrix should be estimated by subtracting out the component in the latent roots which can be attributed to sampling error, and least-squares “capitalization” on this error, in the calculation of the correlations and the roots. A procedure based on the generation of random variables is given for estimating the component which needs to be subtracted.

5,849 citations

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TL;DR: This paper develops a simple first-order and easy-to-implement algorithm that is extremely efficient at addressing problems in which the optimal solution has low rank, and develops a framework in which one can understand these algorithms in terms of well-known Lagrange multiplier algorithms.

Abstract: This paper introduces a novel algorithm to approximate the matrix with minimum nuclear norm among all matrices obeying a set of convex constraints. This problem may be understood as the convex relaxation of a rank minimization problem and arises in many important applications as in the task of recovering a large matrix from a small subset of its entries (the famous Netflix problem). Off-the-shelf algorithms such as interior point methods are not directly amenable to large problems of this kind with over a million unknown entries. This paper develops a simple first-order and easy-to-implement algorithm that is extremely efficient at addressing problems in which the optimal solution has low rank. The algorithm is iterative, produces a sequence of matrices $\{\boldsymbol{X}^k,\boldsymbol{Y}^k\}$, and at each step mainly performs a soft-thresholding operation on the singular values of the matrix $\boldsymbol{Y}^k$. There are two remarkable features making this attractive for low-rank matrix completion problems. The first is that the soft-thresholding operation is applied to a sparse matrix; the second is that the rank of the iterates $\{\boldsymbol{X}^k\}$ is empirically nondecreasing. Both these facts allow the algorithm to make use of very minimal storage space and keep the computational cost of each iteration low. On the theoretical side, we provide a convergence analysis showing that the sequence of iterates converges. On the practical side, we provide numerical examples in which $1,000\times1,000$ matrices are recovered in less than a minute on a modest desktop computer. We also demonstrate that our approach is amenable to very large scale problems by recovering matrices of rank about 10 with nearly a billion unknowns from just about 0.4% of their sampled entries. Our methods are connected with the recent literature on linearized Bregman iterations for $\ell_1$ minimization, and we develop a framework in which one can understand these algorithms in terms of well-known Lagrange multiplier algorithms.

4,762 citations

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TL;DR: It is proved that one can perfectly recover most low-rank matrices from what appears to be an incomplete set of entries, and that objects other than signals and images can be perfectly reconstructed from very limited information.

Abstract: We consider a problem of considerable practical interest: the recovery of a data matrix from a sampling of its entries. Suppose that we observe m entries selected uniformly at random from a matrix M. Can we complete the matrix and recover the entries that we have not seen?
We show that one can perfectly recover most low-rank matrices from what appears to be an incomplete set of entries. We prove that if the number m of sampled entries obeys $$m\ge C\,n^{1.2}r\log n$$ for some positive numerical constant C, then with very high probability, most n×n matrices of rank r can be perfectly recovered by solving a simple convex optimization program. This program finds the matrix with minimum nuclear norm that fits the data. The condition above assumes that the rank is not too large. However, if one replaces the 1.2 exponent with 1.25, then the result holds for all values of the rank. Similar results hold for arbitrary rectangular matrices as well. Our results are connected with the recent literature on compressed sensing, and show that objects other than signals and images can be perfectly reconstructed from very limited information.

4,602 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of approximating one matrix by another of lower rank is formulated as a least-squares problem, and the normal equations cannot be immediately written down, since the elements of the approximate matrix are not independent of one another.

Abstract: The mathematical problem of approximating one matrix by another of lower rank is closely related to the fundamental postulate of factor-theory. When formulated as a least-squares problem, the normal equations cannot be immediately written down, since the elements of the approximate matrix are not independent of one another. The solution of the problem is simplified by first expressing the matrices in a canonic form. It is found that the problem always has a solution which is usually unique. Several conclusions can be drawn from the form of this solution. A hypothetical interpretation of the canonic components of a score matrix is discussed.

3,152 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the use of rank sums from a combined ranking of k independent samples in order to decide which populations differ is suggested as a convenient alternative to making separate rankings for each pair of samples and the two methods are compared.

Abstract: This paper considers the use of rank sums from a combined ranking of k independent samples in order to decide which populations differ. Such a procedure is suggested as a convenient alternative to making separate rankings for each pair of samples, and the two methods are compared. Asymptotic use of the normal tables is given and the treatment of ties is discussed. A numerical example is given.

2,822 citations