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Reaction rate

About: Reaction rate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 28567 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 688688 citation(s). The topic is also known as: speed of reaction & rate of reaction.

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Abstract: Laboratory investigations show that rates of adsorption of persistent organic compounds on granular carbon are quite low. Intraparticle diffusion of solute appears to control the rate of uptake, thus the rate is partially a function of the pore size distribution of the adsorbent, of the molecular size and configuration of the solute, and of the relative electrokinetic properties of adsorbate and adsorbent. Systemic factors such as temperature and pH will influence the rates of adsorption; rates increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing pH. The effect of initial concentration of solute is of considerable significance, the rate of uptake being a linear function of the square-root of concentration within the range of experimentation. Relative reaction rates also vary reciprocally with the square of the diameter of individual carbon particle for a given weight of carbon. Based on the findings of the research, fluidized-bed operation is suggested as an efficient means of using adsorption for treatment of waters and waste waters.

6,048 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A mechanism for electron transfer reactions is described, in which there is very little spatial overlap of the electronic orbitals of the two reacting molecules in the activated complex. Assuming such a mechanism, a quantitative theory of the rates of oxidation‐reduction reactions involving electron transfer in solution is presented. The assumption of "slight‐overlap" is shown to lead to a reaction path which involves an intermediate state X* in which the electrical polarization of the solvent does not have the usual value appropriate for the given ionic charges (i.e., it does not have an equilibrium value). Using an equation developed elsewhere for the electrostatic free energy of nonequilibrium states, the free energy of all possible intermediate states is calculated. The characteristics of the most probable state are then determined with the aid of the calculus of variations by minimizing its free energy subject to certain restraints. A simple expression for the electrostatic contribution to the free energy of formation of the intermediate state from the reactants, ΔF*, is thereby obtained in terms of known quantities, such as ionic radii, charges, and the standard free energy of reaction. This intermediate state X* can either disappear to reform the reactants, or by an electronic jump mechanism to form a state X in which the ions are characteristic of the products. When the latter process is more probable than the former, the over‐all reaction rate is shown to be simply the rate of formation of the intermediate state, namely the collision number in solution multiplied by exp(—ΔF*/kT). Evidence in favor of this is cited. In a detailed quantitative comparison, given elsewhere, with the kinetic data, no arbitrary parameters are needed to obtain reasonable agreement of calculated and experimental results.

4,904 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The calculation of absolute reaction rates is formulated in terms of quantities which are available from the potential surfaces which can be constructed at the present time. The probability of the activated state is calculated using ordinary statistical mechanics. This probability multiplied by the rate of decomposition gives the specific rate of reaction. The occurrence of quantized vibrations in the activated complex, in degrees of freedom which are unquantized in the original molecules, leads to relative reaction rates for isotopes quite different from the rates predicted using simple kinetic theory. The necessary conditions for the general statistical treatment to reduce to the usual kinetic treatment are given.

4,228 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

3,011 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since to form a hole the size of a molecule in a liquid requires almost the same increase in free energy as to vaporize a molecule, the concentration of vapor above the liquid is a measure of such ``molecular'' holes in the liquid. This provides an explanation of the law of rectilinear diameters of Cailletet and Mathias. The theory of reaction rates yields an equation for absolute viscosity applicable to cases involving activation energies where the usual theory of energy transfer does not apply. This equation reduces to a number of the successful empirical equations under the appropriate limiting conditions. The increase of viscosity with shearing stress is explained. The same theory yields an equation for the diffusion coefficient which when combined with the viscosity and applied to the results of Orr and Butler for the diffusion of heavy into light water gives a satisfactory and suggestive interpretation. The usual theories for diffusion coefficients and absolute electrical conductance should be replaced by those developed here when ion and solvent molecule are of about the same size.

2,463 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years