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Rear-end collision

About: Rear-end collision is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 618 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 5666 citation(s). The topic is also known as: shunt.


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Proceedings ArticleDOI
Abstract: The analysis of a rear-end collision warning/ avoidance (CW/CA) system algorithm will be presented. The system is designed to meet several criteria: 1. System warnings should result in a minimum load on driver attention. 2. Automatic control of the brakes should not interfere with normal driving operation.

213 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A study was conducted to find out whether in a rear-impact motor vehicle accident, velocity changes in the impact vehicle of between 10 and 15 km/h can cause so-called “whiplash injuries”. An assessment of the actual injury mechanism of such whiplash injuries and comparison of vehicle rear-end collisions with amusement park bumper car collisions was also carried out. The study was based on experimental biochemical, kinematic, and clinical analysis with volunteers. In Europe between DM 10 and 20 billion each year is paid out by insurance companies alone for whiplash injuries, although various studies show that the biodynamic stresses arising in the case of slight to moderate vehicle damage may not be high enough to cause such injuries. Most of these experimental studies with cadavers, dummies, and some with volunteers were performed with velocity changes below 10 km/h. About 65% of the insurance claims, however, take place in cases with velocity changes of up to 15 km/h. Fourteen male volunteers (aged 28–47 years; average 33.2 years) and five female volunteers (aged 26–37 years; average 32.8 years) participated in 17 vehicle rear-end collisions and 3 bumper car collisions. All cars were fitted with normal European bumper systems. Before, 1 day after and 4–5 weeks after each vehicle crash test and in two of the three bumper car crash tests a clinical examination, a computerized motion analysis, and an MRI examination with Gd-DTPA of the cervical spine of the test persons were performed. During each crash test, in which the test persons were completely screened-off visually and acoustically, the muscle tension of various neck muscles was recorded by surface eletromyography (EMG). The kinematic responses of the test persons and the forces occurring were measured by accelerometers. The kinematic analyses were performed with movement markers and a screening frequency of 700 Hz. To record the acceleration effects of the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle, vehicle accident data recorders were installed in both. The contact phase of the vehicle structures and the kinematics of the test persons were also recorded using high-speed cameras. The results showed that the range of velocity change (vehicle collisions) was 8.7–14.2 km/h (average 11.4 km/h) and the range of mean acceleration of the target vehicle was 2.1–3.6 g (average 2.7 g). The range of velocity change (bumper car collisions) was 8.3–10.6 km/h (average 9.9 km/h) and the range of mean acceleration of the target bumper car was 1.8–2.6 g (average 2.2 g). No injury signs were found at the physical examinations, computerized motion analyses, or at the MRI examinations. Only one of the male volunteers suffered a reduction of rotation of the cervical spine to the left of 10° for 10 weeks. The kinematic analysis very clearly showed that the whiplash mechanism consists of translation/extension (high energy) of the cervical spine with consecutive flexion (low energy) of the cervical spine: hyperextension of the cervical spine during the vehicle crashes was not observed. All the tests showed that the EMG signal of the neck muscles starts before the head movement takes place. The stresses recorded in the vehicle collisions were in the same range as those recorded in the bumper car crashes. From the extent of the damage to the vehicles after a collision it is possible to determine the level of the velocity change. The study concluded that, the “limit of harmlessness” for stresses arising from rear-end impacts with regard to the velocity changes lies between 10 and 15 km/h. For everyday practice, photographs of the damage to cars involved in a rear-end impact are essential to determine this velocity change. The stress occurring in vehicle rear-end collisions can be compared to the stress in bumper car collisions.

185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new approach for the calculation of the trigger time of an emergency brake that simultaneously considers all physically possible trajectories of the object and host vehicle and the orientation of the vehicles is incorporated into the collision estimation.
Abstract: The autonomous emergency brake (AEB) is an active safety function for vehicles which aims to reduce the severity of a collision. An AEB performs a full brake when an accident becomes unavoidable. Even if this system cannot, in general, avoid the accident, it reduces the energy of the crash impact and is therefore referred to as a collision mitigation system. A new approach for the calculation of the trigger time of an emergency brake will be presented. The algorithm simultaneously considers all physically possible trajectories of the object and host vehicle. It can be applied to all different scenarios including rear-end collisions, collisions at intersections, and collisions with oncoming vehicles. Thus, 63% of possible accidents are addressed. The approach accounts for the object and host vehicles' dimensions. Unlike previous work, the orientation of the vehicles is incorporated into the collision estimation.

174 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper is a review of Volvo's Whiplash Protection Study (WHIPS), which is the result of more than ten years of concentrated research efforts in the area of neck injuries in car collisions, with the focus on rear end car impacts.
Abstract: Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) resulting from rear end car impacts are an increasing problem. WAD are usually not life threatening, but are one of the most important injury categories with regard to long-term consequences. This paper is a review of Volvo's Whiplash Protection Study (WHIPS), which is the result of more than ten years of concentrated research efforts in the area of neck injuries in car collisions, with the focus on rear end car impacts. The study follows the whole chain from accident research to the development of a seat for increased protection against WAD. Results from Volvo's accident research are summarized. Existing biomechanical knowledge regarding possible injury mechanisms are presented and discussed. Based on the interpretation of accident research and biomechanical knowledge, guidelines for improved protection against WAD in rear end impacts are presented. Requirements and test methods based on the guidelines are explained. An important part of the study is a new rear end impact dummy, BioRID. Test results using the new dummy are presented. Finally, the paper explains the design of a new seat for increased WAD protection, the WHIPS-seat. Results from the accident research and biomechanical research emphasize the importance of considering the whole spine of the occupant and, accordingly, the whole seat when addressing WAD in rear end impacts, with a particular focus on low and moderate impact severity. Low and moderate impact severity crashes should be focused. Also important to consider are the individual differences between occupants, the seating position and the variety of seating postures. All results, including sub-system testing, mathematical modeling, sled testing, as well as geometrical parameters show that the WHIPS-seat will have considerable potential for offering increased protection against WAD in rear end impacts.

139 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed methodology based on loop detector data enables to identify collision potentials in real time and would be a valuable tool for operating agencies in developing various strategies and policies toward enhancements of traffic safety.
Abstract: An innovative feature of this study is to firstly attempt to capture rear-end collision potentials from the analysis of inductive loop detector data. Signals collected from loops are applied for monitoring individual vehicle information on freeways to estimate safe stopping distances in car-following situations. An index to quantify the potential of rear-end collisions is derived, and further employed for developing criteria to evaluate levels of rear-end collision risks. The proposed methodology based on loop detector data enables to identify collision potentials in real time. It is believed that the index would be a valuable tool for operating agencies in developing various strategies and policies toward enhancements of traffic safety.

133 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20213
202026
201925
201846
201731
201631