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Reciprocity (social psychology)

About: Reciprocity (social psychology) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3235 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 137766 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Reciprocity (social psychology) & Gift exchange. more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Social exchange theory (SET) is one the most influential conceptual paradigms in organizational behavior. Despite its usefulness, theoretical ambiguities within SET remain. As a consequence, tests of the model, as well as its applications, tend to rely on an incompletely specified set of ideas. The authors address conceptual difficulties and highlight areas in need of additional research. In so doing, they pay special attention to four issues: (a) the roots of the conceptual ambiguities, (b) norms and rules of exchange, (c) nature of the resources being exchanged, and (d) social exchange relationships. more

5,447 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Molly Wasko1, Samer Faraj2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This study empirically test a model of knowledge contribution and finds that people contribute their knowledge when they perceive that it enhances their professional reputations, when they have the experience to share, and when they are structurally embedded in the network. more

Abstract: Electronic networks of practice are computer-mediated discussion forums focused on problems of practice that enable individuals to exchange advice and ideas with others based on common interests. However, why individuals help strangers in these electronic networks is not well understood: there is no immediate benefit to the contributor, and free-riders are able to acquire the same knowledge as everyone else. To understand this paradox, we apply theories of collective action to examine how individual motivations and social capital influence knowledge contribution in electronic networks. This study reports on the activities of one electronic network supporting a professional legal association. Using archival, network, survey, and content analysis data, we empirically test a model of knowledge contribution. We find that people contribute their knowledge when they perceive that it enhances their professional reputations, when they have the experience to share, and when they are structurally embedded in the network. Surprisingly, contributions occur without regard to expectations of reciprocity from others or high levels of commitment to the network. more

4,356 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Nan Lin1Institutions (1)
12 Jul 2017-
Abstract: This chapter reviews social capital as discussed in the literature, identifies controversies and debates, considers some critical issues, and provides conceptual and research strategies for building a theory. It argues that such a theory and the research enterprise must be based on the fundamental understanding that social capital is captured from embedded resources in social networks. Such measurements can strength of tie network bridge, or intimacy, intensity, interaction and reciprocity be made relative to two frameworks: network resources and contact resources. There are many other measures, such as size, density, cohesion, and closeness of social networks which are candidates as measures for social capital. Network locations are necessary conditions of embedded resources. By considering social capital as assets in networks, the chapter discusses some issues in conceptualization, measurement, and causal mechanism. A proposed model identifies the exogenous factors leading to the acquisition (or the lack) of social capital as well as the expected returns of social capital. more

3,532 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Gary Charness1, Matthew Rabin2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Departures from self-interest in economic experiments have recently inspired models of “social preferences” We design a range of simple experimental games that test these theories more directly than existing experiments Our experiments show that subjects are more concerned with increasing social welfare—sacrificing to increase the payoffs for all recipients, especially low-payoff recipients—than with reducing differences in payoffs (as supposed in recent models) Subjects are also motivated by reciprocity: They withdraw willingness to sacrifice to achieve a fair outcome when others are themselves unwilling to sacrifice, and sometimes punish unfair behavior more

2,743 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article discusses the economic implications of reciprocity. A long-standing tradition in economics views human beings as exclusively self-interested. In most economic accounts of individual behavior and aggregate social phenomena, the vast forces of greed are put at the center of the explanation. However, many people deviate from purely self-interested behavior in a reciprocal manner. Reciprocity means that in response to friendly actions, people are frequently much nicer and much more cooperative than predicted by the self-interest model; conversely, in response to hostile actions they are frequently much more nasty and even brutal. There is considerable evidence that a substantial fraction of people behave according to this dictum: People repay gifts and take revenge even in interactions with complete strangers and even if it is costly for them and yields neither present nor future material rewards. This notion of reciprocity is thus very different from kind or hostile responses in repeated interactions that are solely motivated by future material gains. more

2,379 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Michael Taborsky

8 papers, 185 citations

Tobias Regner

6 papers, 207 citations

James Konow

5 papers, 93 citations

Anne Warfield Rawls

5 papers, 38 citations

Stephen Leider

5 papers, 118 citations