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Reference architecture

About: Reference architecture is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11062 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 196475 citation(s).
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Book
Len Bass1, Paul Clements1, Rick Kazman1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: This second edition of this book reflects the new developments in the field and new understanding of the important underpinnings of software architecture with new case studies and the new understanding both through new chapters and through additions to and elaboration of the existing chapters.
Abstract: From the Book: Our goals for the first edition were threefold. First, we wanted to show through authentic case studies actual examples of software architectures solving real-world problems. Second, we wanted to establish and show the strong connection between an architecture and an organization's business goals. And third, we wanted to explain the importance of software architecture in achieving the quality goals for a system. Our goals for this second edition are the same, but the passage of time since the writing of the first edition has brought new developments in the field and new understanding of the important underpinnings of software architecture. We reflect the new developments with new case studies and the new understanding both through new chapters and through additions to and elaboration of the existing chapters. Architecture analysis, design, reconstruction, and documentation have all had major developments since the first edition. Architecture analysis has developed into a mature field with industrial-strength methods. This is reflected by a new chapter about the architecture tradeoff analysis method (ATAM). The ATAM has been adopted by industrial organizations as a technique for evaluating their software architectures. Architecture design has also had major developments since the first edition. The capturing of quality requirements, the achievement of those requirements through small-scale and large-scale architectural approaches (tactics and patterns, respectively), and a design method that reflects knowledge of how to achieve qualities are all captured in various chapters. Three new chapters treat understanding quality requirements, achieving qualities, and theattribute driven design (ADD) method, respectively. Architecture reconstruction or reverse engineering is an essential activity for capturing undocumented architectures. It can be used as a portion of a design project, an analysis project, or to provide input into a decision process to determine what to use as a basis for reconstructing an existing system. In the first edition, we briefly mentioned a tool set (Dali) and its uses in the re-engineering context; in in this edition the topic merits its own chapter. Documenting software architectures is another topic that has matured considerably in the recent past. When the first edition was published, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) was just arriving on the scene. Now it is firmly entrenched, a reality reflected by all-new diagrams. But more important, an understanding of what kind of information to capture about an architecture, beyond what notation to use, has emerged. A new chapter covers architecture documentation. The understanding of the application of software architecture to enable organizations to efficiently produce a variety of systems based on a single architecture is summarized in a totally rewritten chapter on software product lines. The chapter reinforces the link between architecture and an organization's business goals, as product lines, based around a software architecture, can enable order-of-magnitude improvements in cost, quality, and time to market. In addition to the architectural developments, the technology for constructing distributed and Web-based systems has become prominent in today's economy. We reflect this trend by updating the World Wide Web chapter, by using Web-based examples for the ATAM chapter and the chapter on building systems from components, by replacing the CORBA case study with one on Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB), and by introducing a case study on a wireless EJB system designed to support wearable computers for maintenance technicians. Finally, we have added a chapter that looks more closely at the financial aspects of architectures. There we introduce a method--the CBAM--for basing architectural decisions on economic criteria, in addition to the technical criteria that we had focused on previously. As in the first edition, we use the architecture business cycle as a unifying motif and all of the case studies are described in terms of the quality goals that motivated the system design and how the architecture for the system achieves those quality goals. In this edition, as in the first, we were very aware that our primary audience is practitioners, so we focus on presenting material that has been found useful in many industrial applications, as well as what we expect practice to be in the near future. We hope that you enjoy reading it at least as much as we enjoyed writing it. 0321154959P12162002

4,872 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John A. Zachman1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Information systems architecture is defined by creating a descriptive framework from disciplines quite independent of information systems, then by analogy specifies information systems architecture based upon the neutral, objective framework.
Abstract: With increasing size and complexity of the implementations of information systems, it is necessary to use some logical construct (or architecture) for defining and controlling the interfaces and the integration of all of the components of the system. This paper defines information systems architecture by creating a descriptive framework from disciplines quite independent of information systems, then by analogy specifies information systems architecture based upon the neutral, objective framework. Also, some preliminary conclusions about the implications of the resultant descriptive framework are drawn. The discussion is limited to architecture and does not include a strategic planning methodology.

3,107 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Amit P. Sheth, James A. Larson1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A federated database system (FDBS) is a collection of cooperating database systems that are autonomous and possibly heterogeneous. In this paper, we define a reference architecture for distributed database management systems from system and schema viewpoints and show how various FDBS architectures can be developed. We then define a methodology for developing one of the popular architectures of an FDBS. Finally, we discuss critical issues related to developing and operating an FDBS.

2,352 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dewayne E. Perry1, Alexander L. Wolf2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: A model of software architecture that consists of three components: elements, form, and rationale is presented, which provides the underlying basis for the architecture in terms of the system constraints, which most often derive from the system requirements.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to build the foundation for software architecture. We first develop an intuition for software architecture by appealing to several well-established architectural disciplines. On the basis of this intuition, we present a model of software architecture that consists of three components: elements, form, and rationale. Elements are either processing, data, or connecting elements. Form is defined in terms of the properties of, and the relationships among, the elements --- that is, the constraints on the elements. The rationale provides the underlying basis for the architecture in terms of the system constraints, which most often derive from the system requirements. We discuss the components of the model in the context of both architectures and architectural styles and present an extended example to illustrate some important architecture and style considerations. We conclude by presenting some of the benefits of our approach to software architecture, summarizing our contributions, and relating our approach to other current work.

2,070 citations


Book
15 Aug 1998
TL;DR: This book explains the forces behind this convergence of shared-memory, message-passing, data parallel, and data-driven computing architectures and provides comprehensive discussions of parallel programming for high performance and of workload-driven evaluation, based on understanding hardware-software interactions.
Abstract: The most exciting development in parallel computer architecture is the convergence of traditionally disparate approaches on a common machine structure. This book explains the forces behind this convergence of shared-memory, message-passing, data parallel, and data-driven computing architectures. It then examines the design issues that are critical to all parallel architecture across the full range of modern design, covering data access, communication performance, coordination of cooperative work, and correct implementation of useful semantics. It not only describes the hardware and software techniques for addressing each of these issues but also explores how these techniques interact in the same system. Examining architecture from an application-driven perspective, it provides comprehensive discussions of parallel programming for high performance and of workload-driven evaluation, based on understanding hardware-software interactions. * synthesizes a decade of research and development for practicing engineers, graduate students, and researchers in parallel computer architecture, system software, and applications development * presents in-depth application case studies from computer graphics, computational science and engineering, and data mining to demonstrate sound quantitative evaluation of design trade-offs * describes the process of programming for performance, including both the architecture-independent and architecture-dependent aspects, with examples and case-studies * illustrates bus-based and network-based parallel systems with case studies of more than a dozen important commercial designs Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Parallel Programs 3 Programming for Performance 4 Workload-Driven Evaluation 5 Shared Memory Multiprocessors 6 Snoop-based Multiprocessor Design 7 Scalable Multiprocessors 8 Directory-based Cache Coherence 9 Hardware-Software Tradeoffs 10 Interconnection Network Design 11 Latency Tolerance 12 Future Directions APPENDIX A Parallel Benchmark Suites

1,563 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021134
2020168
2019218
2018197
2017375