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Reference electrode

About: Reference electrode is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 16901 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 259568 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that the effectiveness of microbial fuel cells can be increased with organisms such as G. sulfurreducens that can attach to electrodes and remain viable for long periods of time while completely oxidizing organic substrates with quantitative transfer of electrons to an electrode.
Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that members of the Geobacteraceae can use electrodes as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. In order to better understand this electron transfer process for energy production, Geobacter sulfurreducens was inoculated into chambers in which a graphite electrode served as the sole electron acceptor and acetate or hydrogen was the electron donor. The electron-accepting electrodes were maintained at oxidizing potentials by connecting them to similar electrodes in oxygenated medium (fuel cells) or to potentiostats that poised electrodes at +0.2 V versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode (poised potential). When a small inoculum of G. sulfurreducens was introduced into electrode-containing chambers, electrical current production was dependent upon oxidation of acetate to carbon dioxide and increased exponentially, indicating for the first time that electrode reduction supported the growth of this organism. When the medium was replaced with an anaerobic buffer lacking nutrients required for growth, acetate-dependent electrical current production was unaffected and cells attached to these electrodes continued to generate electrical current for weeks. This represents the first report of microbial electricity production solely by cells attached to an electrode. Electrode-attached cells completely oxidized acetate to levels below detection (<10 micro M), and hydrogen was metabolized to a threshold of 3 Pa. The rates of electron transfer to electrodes (0.21 to 1.2 micro mol of electrons/mg of protein/min) were similar to those observed for respiration with Fe(III) citrate as the electron acceptor (E(o)' =+0.37 V). The production of current in microbial fuel cell (65 mA/m(2) of electrode surface) or poised-potential (163 to 1,143 mA/m(2)) mode was greater than what has been reported for other microbial systems, even those that employed higher cell densities and electron-shuttling compounds. Since acetate was completely oxidized, the efficiency of conversion of organic electron donor to electricity was significantly higher than in previously described microbial fuel cells. These results suggest that the effectiveness of microbial fuel cells can be increased with organisms such as G. sulfurreducens that can attach to electrodes and remain viable for long periods of time while completely oxidizing organic substrates with quantitative transfer of electrons to an electrode.

1,968 citations

01 Jan 2008-
Abstract: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful tool to investigate properties of materials and electrode reactions. This Primer provides a guide to the use of EIS with a comparison to other electrochemical techniques. The analysis of impedance data for reduction of ferricyanide in a KCl supporting electrolyte is used to demonstrate the error structure for impedance measurements, the use of measurement and process models, as well as the sensitivity of impedance to the evolution of electrode properties. This Primer provides guidelines for experimental design, discusses the relevance of accuracy contour plots to wiring and instrumentation selection, and emphasizes the importance of the Kramers-Kronig relations to data validation and analysis. Applications of EIS to battery performance, metal and alloy corrosion, and electrochemical biosensors are highlighted. Electrochemical impedance measurements depend on both the mechanism under investigation and extrinsic parameters, such as the electrode geometry. Experimental complications are discussed, including the influence of nonstationary behaviour at low frequencies and the need for reference electrodes. Finally, emerging trends in experimental and interpretation approaches are also described.

1,495 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The iodide/triiodide redox couple has good solubility, does not absorb too much light, has a suitable redox potential, and provides rapid dye regeneration, and it is expected that overall efficiencies above 15% might be achieved if half of this internal potential loss could be gained.
Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have gained widespread interest because of their potential for low-cost solar energy conversion. Currently, the certified record efficiency of these solar cells is 11.1%, and measurements of their durability and stability suggest lifetimes exceeding 10 years under operational conditions. The DSC is a photoelectrochemical system: a monolayer of sensitizing dye is adsorbed onto a mesoporous TiO2 electrode, and the electrode is sandwiched together with a counter electrode. An electrolyte containing a redox couple fills the gap between the electrodes. The redox couple is a key component of the DSC. The reduced part of the couple regenerates the photo-oxidized dye. The formed oxidized species diffuses to the counter electrode, where it is reduced. The photovoltage of the device depends on the redox couple because it sets the electrochemical potential at the counter electrode. The redox couple also affects the electrochemical potential of the TiO2 electrode through the recombin...

1,197 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Possible errors in the measurement of acid dissociation constants by potentiometric titration techniques have been considered, with particular references to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Unknown junction potentials can arise when pH measurements are carried out using a glass electrode with saturated calomel reference electrode which have been previously calibrated with a standard buffer solution. The magnitude of the influence of these unknown potentials has been demonstrated and an experimental procedure recommended which gives meaningful results. The precision of calculated acid dissociation constants will also be influenced by the presence of cationic species (e.g. H 4 L 4 ), the total acid strength, the absolute values of the constants and the value accepted for the auto-dissociation constant of water ( K w ). All these factors have been considered quantitatively and their effect on metal complex formation constants, calculated from these acid dissociation constants, noted. The proton dissociation constant of the cationic species of NTA (i.e. H 4 L + ) has been found to have the value of p K 0 =0.80 at 20° and μ=0.10 M .

1,149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Caution should be exercised when one is comparing the redox potentials of complexes measured in CH 3 CN solutions versus different reference electrodes. A critical review of conversion constants amongst various reference electrodes reported in the literature reveals that in most cases the comparisons of redox potential values are far from accurate. From measurements of relationships amongst various common reference electrodes in CH 3 CN solutions, conversion constants for redox potentials measured versus different reference electrodes in acetonitrile solutions at 25°C are proposed, along with a convention for reporting redox potential values.

1,074 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Andrzej Lewenstam

24 papers, 655 citations

Hiroaki Suzuki

21 papers, 256 citations

Masao Kamahori

16 papers, 150 citations

Abdollah Salimi

15 papers, 879 citations

S. Sriman Narayanan

13 papers, 381 citations